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2014 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Oceania, par. 52 (2014) - 2499

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-oceania-par-52-2014

Tobacco control CRC Education and information Tobacco use

52. The Committee recommends that the State party address the incidence of drug use by Children and/or adolescents by, inter alia, providing Children and/or adolescents with accurate and objective information and life skills education on preventing substance abuse, including tobacco and alcohol, and develop accessible and youth-friendly drug dependence treatment and harm reduction services....

Text of the recommendation

52. The Committee recommends that the State party address the incidence of drug use by Children and/or adolescents by, inter alia, providing Children and/or adolescents with accurate and objective information and life skills education on preventing substance abuse, including tobacco and alcohol, and develop accessible and youth-friendly drug dependence treatment and harm reduction services.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the combined second to fourth periodic reports of Fiji, CRC/C/FJI/CO/2-4, (2014). Par. 52. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsrNzM80%2BWVc1qS1PGT2aQ8s4OyrtPCPnOId1llxlIIBcVGtzl6gCzWruv3fjj3UFvuNLk6r1hBB1pNUux%2B2EgfZPrEBRkZiBZ2Yjmq2wULo5

2018 - Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Recommendation for Oceania, par. 50 (b) (2018) - 2496

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-elimination-of-discrimination-against-women-recommendation-for-oceania-par-50-b-2018

Food policy CEDAW Education and information Food and nutrition security

50. The Committee refers to its general recommendation No. 34 (2016) on the rights of rural women and recommends that the State party: (...) (b) Raise awareness of the low value ascribed to the work of rural women and how that is reflected in their low status in society, foster the equal sharing of family and household responsibilities between rural...

Text of the recommendation

50. The Committee refers to its general recommendation No. 34 (2016) on the rights of rural women and recommends that the State party: (...) (b) Raise awareness of the low value ascribed to the work of rural women and how that is reflected in their low status in society, foster the equal sharing of family and household responsibilities between rural women and men and promote ending the prioritization of men in terms of access to food.

Citation

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Concluding observations on the fifth periodic report of Fiji, CEDAW/C/FJI/CO/5, (2018). Par. 50 (b). Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsjuNjw8cUF3pRrdCdanf79l9YmozLGdH2T6Rp2kdRyD%2BXVo21u4hZWC2wGx3rEdH6h05kssvngQtlJ3JbeTrXXJT0hjgxzuTHtoQTOGPG9yF

2017 - Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Recommendation for Nigeria, par. 34 (f) (2017) - 2493

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-elimination-of-discrimination-against-women-recommendation-for-nigeria-par-34-f-2017

Food policy CEDAW Schools and meals programs Food and nutrition security

34. The Committee recommends that the State party: (...) (f) Ensure adequate funding, logistics and provision of food to schools under the school feeding programme and ensure the sustainability of the programme....

Text of the recommendation

34. The Committee recommends that the State party: (...) (f) Ensure adequate funding, logistics and provision of food to schools under the school feeding programme and ensure the sustainability of the programme.

Citation

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Concluding observations on the combined seventh and eighth periodic reports of Nigeria, CEDAW/C/NGA/CO/7-8, (2017). Par. 34 (f). Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CEDAW%2FC%2FNGA%2FCO%2F7-8&Lang=en

2011 - Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Recommendation for South Africa, par. 38 (2011) - 2490

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-elimination-of-discrimination-against-women-recommendation-for-south-africa-par-38-2011-3

Food policy South Africa CEDAW Food production Food and nutrition security Access to water

38. The Committee calls on the State party to take the necessary measures to increase and strengthen the participation of women in designing and implementing local development plans, and to pay special attention to the needs of rural women, in particular women heads of household, by ensuring that they participate in decision-making processes and have improved access to health, education,...

Text of the recommendation

38. The Committee calls on the State party to take the necessary measures to increase and strengthen the participation of women in designing and implementing local development plans, and to pay special attention to the needs of rural women, in particular women heads of household, by ensuring that they participate in decision-making processes and have improved access to health, education, clean water and sanitation services, fertile land and income-generation projects. The Committee also urges the State party to eliminate all forms of discrimination with respect to ownership, co-sharing and inheritance of land. It further urges the introduction of measures to address negative customs and traditional practices, especially in rural areas, which affect full enjoyment of the right to property by women.

Citation

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Concluding observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, CEDAW/C/ZAF/CO/4, (2011). Par. 38. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CEDAW%2fC%2fZAF%2fCO%2f4&Lang=en

2000 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for South Africa, par. 29 (2000) - 2485

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-elimination-of-discrimination-against-women-recommendation-for-south-africa-par-38-2011-2

Food policy South Africa CRC Nutritional surveillance Food and nutrition security Breastfeeding Access to water

29. The Committee notes the State party’s recent initiatives to improve the general situation of health and health services for children, including the introduction of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI) initiative and the provision of free health care to children under the age of six years and to pregnant and lactating women. However, the Committee remains concerned that...

Text of the recommendation

29. The Committee notes the State party’s recent initiatives to improve the general situation of health and health services for children, including the introduction of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI) initiative and the provision of free health care to children under the age of six years and to pregnant and lactating women. However, the Committee remains concerned that health services in the districts and local areas continue to lack adequate resources (both financial and human). The Committee is also concerned that the survival and development of children within the State party continue to be threatened by early childhood diseases such as acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea. The Committee is also concerned about the high incidence of child and infant mortality as well as maternal mortality; the high rate of malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency and stunting; the poor situation of sanitation; and insufficient access to safe drinking water, especially in rural communities. The Committee recommends that the State party reinforce its efforts to allocate appropriate resources and develop comprehensive policies and programmes to improve the health situation of children, particularly in rural areas. In this context, the Committee recommends that the State party facilitate greater access to primary health services; reduce the incidence of maternal, child and infant mortality; prevent and combat malnutrition, especially in vulnerable and disadvantaged groups of children; and increase access to safe drinking water and sanitation. Additionally, the Committee encourages the State party to continue its technical cooperation with respect to the IMIC initiative and, where necessary, to pursue additional avenues for cooperation and assistance for child health improvement with, inter alia, WHO and UNICEF.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, CONSIDERATION OF REPORTS SUBMITTED BY STATES PARTIES UNDER ARTICLE 44 OF THE CONVENTION, CRC/C/15/Add.122, (2000). Par. 29. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2f15%2fAdd.122&Lang=en

2016 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for South Africa, par. 53 and 54 (2016) - 2482

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-south-africa-par-53-and-54-2016

Food policy South Africa CRC Food marketing regulations Breastfeeding

53. The Committee welcomes the adoption of the Roadmap for Nutrition in South Africa 2013-2017, as well as the efforts made to facilitate breastfeeding. Nevertheless, the Committee is concerned at: (a) Child malnutrition, including undernutrition, micronutrient deficiencies and overnutrition, as key contributing factors for child mortality and child morbidity; (b) Child food insecurity caused by, among other things, poverty, food...

Text of the recommendation

53. The Committee welcomes the adoption of the Roadmap for Nutrition in South Africa 2013-2017, as well as the efforts made to facilitate breastfeeding. Nevertheless, the Committee is concerned at: (a) Child malnutrition, including undernutrition, micronutrient deficiencies and overnutrition, as key contributing factors for child mortality and child morbidity; (b) Child food insecurity caused by, among other things, poverty, food price increases, demographic changes, energy costs and climate change; (c) The persistently low rate of exclusive breastfeeding of infants aged up to 6 months; (d) The inadequate nutritiousness of food provided in the school meal programme; (e) The increase in the prevalence of obesity among children and the aggressive marketing of unhealthy food targeting children.

54. Taking note of target 2.2 of the Sustainable Development Goals on ending all forms of malnutrition, the Committee recommends that the State party: (a) Develop and implement a framework law on the right to food, as envisaged in the National Policy on Food and Nutrition Security for the Republic of South Africa, of 2014, paying due attention to the eradication of child food insecurity and malnutrition; (b) Take all measures necessary to promote exclusive breastfeeding for at least six months, with appropriate guidance and support for breastfeeding by HIV-infected mothers, and to regulate the promotion of breast milk substitutes; (c) Strengthen the monitoring of the National School Nutrition Programme, including of the frequency, quality and nutritional value of the food supplied through the programme; (d) Regulate the marketing of unhealthy foods to children in order to address the rise in child obesity, and introduce strategies that enable poor households to access healthy food; (e) Seek technical assistance from UNICEF and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in this regard.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the second periodic report of South Africa, CRC/C/ZAF/CO/2, (2016). Par. 53 and 54. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fZAF%2fCO%2f2&Lang=en

2018 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for South Africa par. 56 and 57 (a), (b), (c) and (d) (2018) - 2479

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-south-africa-par-56-and-57-a-b-c-and-d-2018

Food policy South Africa CESCR Fiscal measures Nutritional surveillance

56. The Committee is concerned at the high incidence of food insecurity and malnutrition in the State party, particularly among children. Given the fact that, in the State party, 12 per cent of children lived in hunger in 2017 and 27 per cent of children suffered from stunting in 2016, the Committee is particularly concerned that the child support grant...

Text of the recommendation

56. The Committee is concerned at the high incidence of food insecurity and malnutrition in the State party, particularly among children. Given the fact that, in the State party, 12 per cent of children lived in hunger in 2017 and 27 per cent of children suffered from stunting in 2016, the Committee is particularly concerned that the child support grant (at 400 rand per month) has been set far below the food poverty line and that an estimated 18 per cent of eligible children do not benefit from the grant, owing to a lack of documentation. It is further concerned at the lack of a framework law to ensurethe right to food (arts. 9 and 11).

57. The Committee recommends that the State party: (a) Increase the child support grant at least up to the level of the food poverty line; (b) Ensure that all eligible children benefit from the grant; (c) Expedite the adoption of the Social Assistance Amendment Bill of 2018 to increase the level of child support grants for orphaned and abandoned children living with relatives, for which it has already earmarked funds; (d) Adopt framework legislation protecting the right to adequate food and nutrition, and develop a national food and nutrition security strategy, taking into account the Voluntary Guidelines to Support the Progressive Realization of the Right to Adequate Food in the Context of National Food Security of 2004 and the Committee ’ s general comment No. 12 (1999) on the right to adequate food.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Concluding observations on the initial report of South Africa, E/C.12/ZAF/CO/1, (2018). Par. 56 and 57. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E%2fC.12%2fZAF%2fCO%2f1&Lang=en

2009 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Madagascar, par.28 (2009) - 2477

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-madagascar-par-28-2009

Other Health-related issues Madagascar CESCR Food and nutrition security

28. The Committee urges the State party to adopt emergency measures to combat the persistent problem of malnutrition in prisons, including by increasing the resources allocated to food for the prisoners and providing them with access to health care. It also recommends that the State party provide information on the results achieved by the programmes carried out to improve the...

Text of the recommendation

28. The Committee urges the State party to adopt emergency measures to combat the persistent problem of malnutrition in prisons, including by increasing the resources allocated to food for the prisoners and providing them with access to health care. It also recommends that the State party provide information on the results achieved by the programmes carried out to improve the food in prisons.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, CONSIDERATION OF REPORTS SUBMITTED BY STATES PARTIES UNDER ARTICLES 16 AND 17 OF THE COVENANT

, E/C.12/MDG/CO/2 (2009), par. 28. Available at: http://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=4slQ6QSmlBEDzFEovLCuW2YzVRrmjV5ZGpj%2fi0fjDsq28RlGL%2b8lzd0EzdSsF7LzECdN9UD%2fx9wtF4%2bWFaCcAbPVdtUwLdhbqdf0HLWzd82BSZq%2f5XAj1eyqiSWW6%2frT

2010 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Madagascar par. 22 (2010) - 2475

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-madagascar-par-22-2010

Food policy Tobacco control Other Health-related issues Madagascar CRC Industry interference

22. The Committee recommends that the State party establish and implement regulations to ensure that the business sector complies with international and domestic standards on corporate social responsibility, in line with the United Nations Business and Human Rights Framework, which outlines the duty of States to protect against human rights abuses by businesses; corporate responsibility to respect human rights; and...

Text of the recommendation

22. The Committee recommends that the State party establish and implement regulations to ensure that the business sector complies with international and domestic standards on corporate social responsibility, in line with the United Nations Business and Human Rights Framework, which outlines the duty of States to protect against human rights abuses by businesses; corporate responsibility to respect human rights; and the need for more effective access to remedies when violations occur. In doing so, the Committee encourages the State party to focus on the protection of the rights of the child and to investigate and provide remedies in reported cases of abuse by corporations and their executives. The Committee encourages the State party to consider the Human Rights Council r esolution 8/7 welcoming the report identifying the ¨Protect, Respect and Remedy¨ framework and r esolution 14/7 requesting the new Working Group to follow-up on this matter , both of which note that the rights of the child be included when exploring the relationship between business and human rights.

Citation

Comittee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of reports submitted by States partiesunder article 44 of the Convention, CRC/C/MDG/CO/3-4 (2010). Par. 22. Available at: http://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2fPPRiCAqhKb7yhshb9BidIej3GNub%2bCmwkVao1Fe8UB0FQIGuNbYal5cRnKyiiULz0UK6e6IYf16reijiZLX165Qv%2fEjwnni7%2f97qiRJDnAb8qIizGYe51sEbq

2012 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Madagascar par. 4 (i) (2012) - 2473

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-madagascar-par-4-i-2012

Tobacco control Madagascar CRC FCTC ratification

4. The Committee also welcomes the ratification of or accession to: (i)World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, in 2004....

Text of the recommendation

4. The Committee also welcomes the ratification of or accession to: (i)World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, in 2004.

Citation

Comittee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the combined third to fifth periodic reports of Kenya , CRC/C/MDG/CO/3-4 (2012). Par. 4 (i). Available at: http://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2fPPRiCAqhKb7yhsiVXw3pS%2bUXH3S2uOz56XaHOlmQlXek9CSfHt61Gk52XYLAe1vtQx5jEtqe8Sh%2fkZmyOARonOIQzp0aD8yhV4yGRJhWSai5hxIps8r1I3Zk4

2016 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Kenya par. 50 (e) (2016) - 2471

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-kenya-par-50-e-2016-2

Other Health-related issues Kenya CRC Education and information

50. With reference to the Committee’s general comment No. 4 (2003) on adolescents health and development, the Committee recommends that the State party:(e) Implement education programmes and campaigns to promote healthy lifestyles and to prevent drug and substance abuse by children, monitor the use of drugs and other substances at schools with the participation of children, and develop accessible and...

Text of the recommendation

50. With reference to the Committee’s general comment No. 4 (2003) on adolescents health and development, the Committee recommends that the State party:(e) Implement education programmes and campaigns to promote healthy lifestyles and to prevent drug and substance abuse by children, monitor the use of drugs and other substances at schools with the participation of children, and develop accessible and youth-friendly drug and substance dependence treatment and harm reduction services as well as life skills education.

Citation

Comittee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the combined third to fifth periodic reports of Kenya , CRC/C/KEN/CO/3-5 (2016). Par. 50 (e). Available at: http://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2fPPRiCAqhKb7yhsiVXw3pS%2bUXH3S2uOz56XaHOlmQlXek9CSfHt61Gk52XYLAe1vtQx5jEtqe8Sh%2fkZmyOARonOIQzp0aD8yhV4yGRJhWSai5hxIps8r1I3Zk4

2006 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Kenya par. 20 (a), (b) and (c) (2016) - 2469

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-kenya-par-20-a-b-and-c-2016-2

Food policy Tobacco control Kenya CRC Industry interference

20. With reference to the Committee’s general comment No. 16 (2013) on State obligations regarding the impact of the business sector on children’s rights, the Committee recommends that the State party: (a) Establish a clear regulatory framework for business enterprises operating in the State party to ensure that their activities do not negatively affect child rights or breach environmental, health...

Text of the recommendation

20. With reference to the Committee’s general comment No. 16 (2013) on State obligations regarding the impact of the business sector on children’s rights, the Committee recommends that the State party: (a) Establish a clear regulatory framework for business enterprises operating in the State party to ensure that their activities do not negatively affect child rights or breach environmental, health or labor standards, especially those relating to children; (b) Monitor the compliance of business enterprises with such regulations, as well as with international and national environmental, health and labor standards, and sanction appropriately and provide remedies when violations occur; (c) Be guided by the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (see A/HRC/17/31, annex).

Citation

Comittee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the combined third to fifth periodic reports of Kenya, CRC/C/GHA/CO/2 (2022). Par. 20. Available at: http://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2fPPRiCAqhKb7yhsiVXw3pS%2bUXH3S2uOz56XaHOlmQlXek9CSfHt61Gk52XYLAe1vtQx5jEtqe8Sh%2fkZmyOARonOIQzp0aD8yhV4yGRJhWSai5hxIps8r1I3Zk4

2006 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Ghana par. 50 (b) (2006) - 2466

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-ghana-par-50-b-2006

Food policy CRC Fiscal measures Access to water

50. The Committee recommends that the State party: (b) Allocate more financial resources to child health, nutrition and access to safe drinking water and sanitation facilities....

Text of the recommendation

50. The Committee recommends that the State party: (b) Allocate more financial resources to child health, nutrition and access to safe drinking water and sanitation facilities.

Citation

Comittee on the Rights of the Child, CONSIDERATION OF REPORTS SUBMITTED BY STATES PARTIESUNDER ARTICLE 44 OF THE CONVENTION, CRC/C/GHA/CO/2 (2022). Par. 50 (b). Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsn4lEk2OyVRMkwrZhdnsnLbFIYJtHdqUaWKj%2F2S7gjt7sNWSmNDnSMighl0Nr7IxXwP0QHzcdpER%2BWx1CFmoQXvoDtsIyQRPabXDl1DqOv3w

2022 - Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Recommendation for Gambia par. 38 (a) (2022) - 2464

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-elimination-of-discrimination-against-women-recommendation-for-gambia-par-38-a-2022

Food policy CEDAW Food and nutrition security

38. In line with general recommendation No. 34 (2016) on the rights of rural women, the Committee recommends that the State party, in view of the importance of the agricultural sector for its economic development and food and nutrition security: (a) Ensure implementation of the gender mainstreaming component of the agriculture and natural resources policy for the period 2017–2026 by...

Text of the recommendation

38. In line with general recommendation No. 34 (2016) on the rights of rural women, the Committee recommends that the State party, in view of the importance of the agricultural sector for its economic development and food and nutrition security: (a) Ensure implementation of the gender mainstreaming component of the agriculture and natural resources policy for the period 2017–2026 by conducting an evaluation of the progress achieved at its midpoint and at completion, including the responsiveness of agricultural policies, programmes and projects, such as national food security and nutritional investment programmes, to effectively address the needs of rural women;

Citation

Comittee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, Concluding observations on the sixth periodic report of the Gambia, CEDAW/C/GMB/CO/6 (2022). Par. 38 (a). Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsldCrOlUTvLRFDjh6%2Fx1pWD0uGukuof9i2kF7aKFiu%2BwjurAMFNWJhw7pu7yM5Qb8zzt60poPCEa%2FkZAZH%2BT0O33FWfcgnRioeTCxn5YqFXs

2011 - Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Recommendation for Ethiopia par. 37 (c) (2011) - 2462

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-elimination-of-discrimination-against-women-recommendation-for-ethiopia-par-37-c-2011

Food policy CEDAW Fiscal measures Food and nutrition security

37. The Committee recommends that the State party: (c) Ensure that land lease contracts with foreign companies do not result in the forced eviction and internal displacement, or the increased food insecurity and poverty, of local populations, including women and/or girls, and that such contracts stipulate that the company concerned and/or the State party must provide the affected communities, including...

Text of the recommendation

37. The Committee recommends that the State party: (c) Ensure that land lease contracts with foreign companies do not result in the forced eviction and internal displacement, or the increased food insecurity and poverty, of local populations, including women and/or girls, and that such contracts stipulate that the company concerned and/or the State party must provide the affected communities, including pastoralist communities, with adequate compensation and alternative land.

Citation

Comittee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, Concluding observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, CEDAW/C/ETH/CO/6-7 (2011). Par. 37 (c). Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhssmw5jHDQuNBd%2BTWAIG8TlEQt5YYYf78tfXw2iXh0iNUrTx5pAGRagrplgBYskOh9j1LYoCvYJVdDqI9q5oCr41tpjprhiFE12PZKlI2Fp2XD11y%2BT6gAaj0%2BnwXPimNTg%3D%3D

2012 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Ethiopia par. 22 (2012) - 2455

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-ethiopia-par-22-2012

Food policy CESCR Food and nutrition security

22.The Committee notes with concern the prevalenceof chronic food insecurity and malnutrition, in particular amongst children (art.11). The Committee recommends that the State party take steps to address chronic food insecurity, chronic malnutrition and the critical nutritional needs of children. The Committee also urges the State party to ensure that the population of the Somali National Regional State of Ethiopia...

Text of the recommendation

22.The Committee notes with concern the prevalenceof chronic food insecurity and malnutrition, in particular amongst children (art.11). The Committee recommends that the State party take steps to address chronic food insecurity, chronic malnutrition and the critical nutritional needs of children. The Committee also urges the State party to ensure that the population of the Somali National Regional State of Ethiopia benefits from State-run food aid and rural development plans.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under articles 16 and 17 of the Covenant, E/C.12/ETH/CO/1-3 (2012). Par. 22. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=4slQ6QSmlBEDzFEovLCuW1wQsqGdL%2BPhjZX1KlkLgdlHfsTJ1fpoeNSx3mx%2FKXpUPKj41AiSu7iHj0P06dQgk7jvdkpmt6%2F6wDtwO7SLQ4fF4xeN0c0xB8%2BBfrHLwAX%2B

2019 - Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Recommendation for Ethiopia par. 56 (b) (2019) - 2452

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-elimination-of-discrimination-against-women-recommendation-for-ethiopia-par-56-b-2019

Food policy CEDAW Food and nutrition security

56. The Committee recommends that the State party: (b) Ensure that women in detention have adequate access to health care, nutrition and hygiene and that women and men are separated in all detention facilities....

Text of the recommendation

56. The Committee recommends that the State party: (b) Ensure that women in detention have adequate access to health care, nutrition and hygiene and that women and men are separated in all detention facilities.

Citation

Comittee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, Concluding observations on the eighth periodic report of Ethiopia, CEDAW/C/ETH/CO/8 (2019). Par. 56 (b). Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhssmw5jHDQuNBd%2BTWAIG8TlGh59Z98lbtQLmKT%2BHOnJX7wjB8DWJT0P1%2FgESSszX3LSOuFePArNHHYg7dMwoeXlxFpXH670gaEKu6BDqdphm9

2008 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Djibouti Par. 30 (2008) - 2449

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-djibouti-par-30-2008

Food policy CRC Food and nutrition security

30. The Committee urges the State party to continue and strengthen its efforts to address issues related to the right to life, survival and development, particularly through the application of its strategies, policies and programmes on this issue. The Committee further recommends that particular attention be given by the State party to addressing the problem of infant mortality, malnutrition and...

Text of the recommendation

30. The Committee urges the State party to continue and strengthen its efforts to address issues related to the right to life, survival and development, particularly through the application of its strategies, policies and programmes on this issue. The Committee further recommends that particular attention be given by the State party to addressing the problem of infant mortality, malnutrition and the related issue of household food insecurity, as well as sanitation coverage, in both urban and rural areas.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, CONSIDERATION OF REPORTS SUBMITTED BY STATES PARTIES UNDER ARTICLE 44 OF THE CONVENTION, CRC/C/DJI/CO/3-5 (2008). Par. 30. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhspxjJ9X0EVB84EgD1eZPwxuYrlW1TDeglWviI1TdK1RShfeOTOlDg7PrcZr29jrdBYkY8s%2B5Jrg%2Brf8gjtLDNfbINFYqkacX%2FTGXBZQYDs5t

2022 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Djibouti par. 37 (a), (b) and (c) (2022) - 2446

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-djibouti-par-37-a-b-and-c-2022

Food policy CRC Food and nutrition security Access to water

37. Taking note of targets 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 and 2.2 of the Sustainable Development Goals, the Committee recommends that the State party: (a) Take urgent measures to prioritize children who suffer from severe acute malnutrition and provide them with the necessary treatment and nutrition; (b) Regularly monitor and assess the effectiveness of policies and programmes on security and nutrition among...

Text of the recommendation

37. Taking note of targets 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 and 2.2 of the Sustainable Development Goals, the Committee recommends that the State party: (a) Take urgent measures to prioritize children who suffer from severe acute malnutrition and provide them with the necessary treatment and nutrition; (b) Regularly monitor and assess the effectiveness of policies and programmes on security and nutrition among children; (c) Intensify efforts to prioritize access to clean drinking water, sanitation and shelter, as well as access to, and the availability and affordability of, food, in particular for rural populations, and consider asking UNICEF, WHO and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, among others, for assistance to address those issues...

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, CONSIDERATION OF REPORTS SUBMITTED BY STATES PARTIES UNDER ARTICLE 44 OF THE CONVENTION, CRC/C/DJI/CO/3-5 (2022). Par. 37 (a), (b) and (c). Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsp32e83GEI8msE8Qd28gyVFXHudDolXbMfjgDXDxozhp6tZWDHcXu%2BMQ%2BU1f8odUchmIzNDZzrZr3obaP0OeyCg6MI6TbKGBccUw%2BsqOoGj0

2009 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Chad, par. 38 (2009) - 2443

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-chad-par-38-2009

Food policy CRC Food and nutrition security

38. The Committee urges the State party to continue and strengthen its efforts to address issues related to the right to life, survival and development, particularly through the application of its strategies, policies and plans on this issue. The Committee further recommends that particular attention be given by the State party to addressing the problem of malnutrition....

Text of the recommendation

38. The Committee urges the State party to continue and strengthen its efforts to address issues related to the right to life, survival and development, particularly through the application of its strategies, policies and plans on this issue. The Committee further recommends that particular attention be given by the State party to addressing the problem of malnutrition.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, CONSIDERATION OF REPORTS SUBMITTED BY STATES PARTIES UNDER ARTICLE 44 OF THE CONVENTION, CRC/C/TCD/CO/2 (2009). Par. 38. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsp32e83GEI8msE8Qd28gyVFXHudDolXbMfjgDXDxozhp6tZWDHcXu%2BMQ%2BU1f8odUchmIzNDZzrZr3obaP0OeyCg6MI6TbKGBccUw%2BsqOoGj0

2009 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Chad, par. 25 (2009) - 2440

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-chad-par-25-2009

Food policy CESCR Food marketing regulations

25.The Committee recommends that the State party set up, and provide sufficient funding for, programmes designed to ensure for everyone, especially the most disadvantaged and marginalized persons and social groups, physical and economic access to the minimum of essential food that is sufficient, nutritionally adequate and safe to ensure freedom from hunger, in line with the Committee’s general comment No....

Text of the recommendation

25.The Committee recommends that the State party set up, and provide sufficient funding for, programmes designed to ensure for everyone, especially the most disadvantaged and marginalized persons and social groups, physical and economic access to the minimum of essential food that is sufficient, nutritionally adequate and safe to ensure freedom from hunger, in line with the Committee’s general comment No. 12 on the right to adequate food (1999) and its statement on the world food crisis.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties in accordance with articles 16 and 17 of the Covenant, E/C.12/TCD/CO/3 (2009). Par. 25. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=4slQ6QSmlBEDzFEovLCuW5phOd4cxCxjkMp%2FLl%2F5D2QoElGea3OAko%2Fg0hwuxlrwVCaoFk1Tj8U8Csm0bD%2FS7u%2FNDizf3%2FjNL%2BrW6RHNTBMX3DB7wsDfYU9QYH8Te55H

2010 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Cameroon, par. 72 (d) (2010) - 2437

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-cameroon-par-72-d-2010

Food policy CRC Education and information Food and nutrition security

72. The Committee reiterates its previous recommendation and urges the State party , inter alia , to: (d) Ensure that children in street situations have access to education and are supported to stay in school, and provide them with adequate health services, shelter and food, bearing in mind the specific needs of girls. ...

Text of the recommendation

72. The Committee reiterates its previous recommendation and urges the State party , inter alia , to: (d) Ensure that children in street situations have access to education and are supported to stay in school, and provide them with adequate health services, shelter and food, bearing in mind the specific needs of girls.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, CRC/C/CMR/CO/2 (2010). Par. 72 (d). Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsgv0eNCYtyyNQsBlq2fF1%2BAsPv65iK9DMf6fGchHVb6%2BIOtyBYGCec3GbZ%2BDvLDtLuVCczTI5zUfxnnjWl0%2Fzoy24aDF1HubAOKwGYSBqTs%2B

2012 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Cameroon, par. 31 (2012) - 2435

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-cameroon-par-31-2012

Tobacco control CESCR Fiscal measures Education and information Smoke and emissions’ free environments (SFE) Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS) Tobacco use

31. The Committee notes with concern the high rate of smoking in the State party, despite measures taken to cut the consumption of tobacco (art. 12). The Committee recommends that the State party design effective policies to combat tobacco consumption, strengthen its prohibition on tobacco product advertising, enact legislation imposing a strict ban on smoking in all closed public areas, and...

Text of the recommendation

31. The Committee notes with concern the high rate of smoking in the State party, despite measures taken to cut the consumption of tobacco (art. 12).

The Committee recommends that the State party design effective policies to combat tobacco consumption, strengthen its prohibition on tobacco product advertising, enact legislation imposing a strict ban on smoking in all closed public areas, and intensify public awareness-raising campaigns. It also recommends that the State party allocate part of its revenue from taxes on cigarettes to discourage smoking.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under articles 16 and 17 of the Covenant, E/C.12/CMR/CO/2-3 (2012). Par. 31. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=4slQ6QSmlBEDzFEovLCuW6UZeww1QFihQBrUmR7Q0x%2FtpSH9GkYhB5bG%2Fo9ZXFU9sbkIS%2BUysVKEuVehwGiJ2swxybOWJxDwtJExBzV2uKpEAKxa%2Fj9MbeX2YCdNSrQ6

2012 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Cameroon, par. 26 (2012) - 2432

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-cameroon-par-26-2012

Food policy CESCR Food production Food and nutrition security Trade and investment

26. (...) The Committee urges the State party to take the necessary measures to protect the right to adequate food, including by setting up a public food distribution system for the most disadvantaged and marginalized regions and groups. It also calls on the State party to tackle structural problems related to food insecurity, such as security of land tenure for...

Text of the recommendation

26. (...) The Committee urges the State party to take the necessary measures to protect the right to adequate food, including by setting up a public food distribution system for the most disadvantaged and marginalized regions and groups. It also calls on the State party to tackle structural problems related to food insecurity, such as security of land tenure for small-scale producers, the transport and distribution of foodstuffs, and the availability of agricultural credits. The Committee refers the State party to its general comment No. 12 (1999) on the right to adequate food and to the Voluntary Guidelines to support the progressive realization of the right to adequate food in the context of national food security, adopted by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under articles 16 and 17 of the Covenant, E/C.12/CMR/CO/2-3 (2012). Par. 26. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=4slQ6QSmlBEDzFEovLCuW6UZeww1QFihQBrUmR7Q0x%2FtpSH9GkYhB5bG%2Fo9ZXFU9sbkIS%2BUysVKEuVehwGiJ2swxybOWJxDwtJExBzV2uKpEAKxa%2Fj9MbeX2YCdNSrQ6

2017 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Cameroon, par. 34 (e) and par. 35 (d) (2017) - 2429

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-cameroon-par-34-e-and-par-35-d-2017

Food policy Tobacco control Other Health-related issues CRC Fiscal measures Food marketing regulations Education and information Breastfeeding

34. (e) Address malnutrition by finalizing and implementing the food and nutrition policy, ensuring a dedicated budget line in the national budget for nutrition, intensifying awareness-raising campaigns, particularly in rural areas, promoting exclusive breastfeeding and knowledge of the national code on the marketing of breast milk substitutes and establishing hospitals certified as baby-friendly. 35. (d) Address the incidence of drug...

Text of the recommendation

34. (e) Address malnutrition by finalizing and implementing the food and nutrition policy, ensuring a dedicated budget line in the national budget for nutrition, intensifying awareness-raising campaigns, particularly in rural areas, promoting exclusive breastfeeding and knowledge of the national code on the marketing of breast milk substitutes and establishing hospitals certified as baby-friendly.

35. (d) Address the incidence of drug abuse by Children and/or adolescents, in particular Tramadol, by, inter alia, providing Children and/or adolescents with accurate and objective information and education on life skills for the prevention of substance abuse, including tobacco and alcohol, and develop accessible and youth-friendly drug dependency treatment and harm reduction services

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the combined third to fifth periodic reports of Cameroon, CRC/C/CMR/CO/3-5 (2017). Par. 34 (e) and 35 (d). Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2FC%2FCMR%2FCO%2F3-5&Lang=en

2019 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Cameroon, par. 51 (a) (2019) - 2426

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-cameroon-par-51-a-2019

Food policy CESCR Nutritional surveillance Food and nutrition security

51. (a) Adopt a legislative and institutional framework and a comprehensive strategy for guaranteeing the right to adequate food and combating hunger and chronic malnutrition, particularly in rural areas and in the Far North Region, and seek technical support in that regard from the Right to Food Team of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations...

Text of the recommendation

51. (a) Adopt a legislative and institutional framework and a comprehensive strategy for guaranteeing the right to adequate food and combating hunger and chronic malnutrition, particularly in rural areas and in the Far North Region, and seek technical support in that regard from the Right to Food Team of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, ONSIDERATION OF REPORTS SUBMITTED BY STATES PARTIES UNDER ARTICLE 44 OF THE CONVENTION, E/C.12/CMR/CO/4 (2019). Par. 51 (a). Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E%2FC.12%2FCMR%2FCO%2F4&Lang=en

2001 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Cabo Verde, par. 51 and par. 52 (2001) - 2423

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-cabo-verde-par-51-and-par-52-2001

Tobacco control Other Health-related issues Cabo Verde CRC Education and information Tobacco use

51. The Committee is concerned that adolescents face numerous risks, including from life on the street, sexual exploitation, mistreatment, alcohol, tobacco and drug abuse and delinquency, and that there are no statistics available to indicate the number of adolescents exposed to these dangers. The Committee is concerned, in addition, at the high rates of teenage pregnancy, the incidence of sexually...

Text of the recommendation

51. The Committee is concerned that adolescents face numerous risks, including from life on the street, sexual exploitation, mistreatment, alcohol, tobacco and drug abuse and delinquency, and that there are no statistics available to indicate the number of adolescents exposed to these dangers. The Committee is concerned, in addition, at the high rates of teenage pregnancy, the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases, the potential spread of HIV/AIDS and the incidence of unsafe abortions occurring outside the health service structure. 52. The Committee recommends that the State party: (a) Ensure that its child rights policy takes into consideration the risks faced by adolescents and that every effort is made to ensure that adolescents have access to appropriate health, including mental health, care and legal assistance; (b) Give special attention to sexual exploitation, mistreatment, and alcohol, tobacco and substance abuse; (c) Give special attention to teenage pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, HIV/AIDS and unsafe abortions, including through the provision of sex education for all adolescents; (d) Ensure the provision of child-sensitive health assistance, education and counselling, in full respect of the child’s right to privacy; (e) Seek technical assistance from, among others, UNFPA and WHO.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, ONSIDERATION OF REPORTS SUBMITTED BY STATES PARTIES UNDER ARTICLE 44 OF THE CONVENTION, CRC/C/15/Add.168 (2001). Par. 51 and 52. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2f15%2fAdd.168&Lang=en

2019 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Cabo Verde, par. 64 (2019) - 2421

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-cabo-verde-par-64-2019-2

Other Health-related issues Cabo Verde CRC Education and information

64. The Committee welcomes the integration of adolescents health in the National Health Policy, and the creation of sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents in 2008. The Committee is, however, concerned about the high number of pregnancies among girls and the discrepancy in access to sexual and reproductive health services between urban and rural areas. The Committee notes the...

Text of the recommendation

64. The Committee welcomes the integration of adolescents health in the National Health Policy, and the creation of sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents in 2008. The Committee is, however, concerned about the high number of pregnancies among girls and the discrepancy in access to sexual and reproductive health services between urban and rural areas. The Committee notes the training, education and awareness-raising activities to prevent the use of harmful drugs by children but remains concerned about their use by adolescents, with some starting to use drugs before the age of 15.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the second periodic report of Cabo Verde, CRC/C/CPV/CO/2 (2019). Par. 64. Available at: http://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2fPPRiCAqhKb7yhslnBTpuuAw%2f%2b74cgBUuvp98ixU1BnIBw2XvKuz%2boZhvpu3frlJYR3qLMOOAJLG%2bHbp8qvThVvhusU7wjqqVZDtJH5qFG7JaN5wIum7H13UJN

2019 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Cabo Verde, par. 82 (2019) - 2415

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-cabo-verde-par-82-2019-2

Tobacco control Cabo Verde CRC Smoke and emissions’ free environments (SFE)

82. Recalling its general comment No. 17 (2013) on the right of the child to rest, leisure, play, recreational activities, cultural life and the arts, the Committee recommends that the State party take measures to provide children with safe, accessible, inclusive and smoke-free spaces for play and socialization at the community level....

Text of the recommendation

82. Recalling its general comment No. 17 (2013) on the right of the child to rest, leisure, play, recreational activities, cultural life and the arts, the Committee recommends that the State party take measures to provide children with safe, accessible, inclusive and smoke-free spaces for play and socialization at the community level.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, CRC/C/CPV/CO/2 (2019). Par. 82. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsnTVcCSPQ%2BSAC9fggurxV%2FQgZdgujhmn2wgt8wLsiZ6U4EUYZnSOtOoPhmfgtpjmMN2EveL1XTNLnmVo6UX%2FbiARNBg44HCge6nyuah3kCK%2B

2010 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Burkina Faso, par. 55 (e) (2010) - 2412

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-burkina-faso-par-55-e-2010

Food policy Tobacco control CRC Education and information Breastfeeding

55. (e) Ensuring that all segments of society are informed of and have access to education and support on the use of basic knowledge of child health and nutrition, including the advantages of exclusive breastfeeding for children up to six months;...

Text of the recommendation

55. (e) Ensuring that all segments of society are informed of and have access to education and support on the use of basic knowledge of child health and nutrition, including the advantages of exclusive breastfeeding for children up to six months;

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, CRC/C/BFA/CO/3-4 (2017). Par. 55 (e). Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsnTVcCSPQ%2BSAC9fggurxV%2FQgZdgujhmn2wgt8wLsiZ6U4EUYZnSOtOoPhmfgtpjmMN2EveL1XTNLnmVo6UX%2FbiARNBg44HCge6nyuah3kCK%2B

2017 - Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Recommendation for Burkina Faso, par. 47 (2017) - 2409

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-elimination-of-discrimination-against-women-recommendation-for-burkina-faso-par-47-2017

Food policy CEDAW Food and nutrition security Access to water

47. The Committee recommends that the State party implement the United Nations Rules for the Treatment of Women Prisoners and Non-custodial Measures for Women Offenders (the Bangkok Rules), guarantee the separation of detained women from convicts, ensure their access to adequate nutrition, drinking water, sanitation and healthcare and strengthen support programmes for their integration upon release....

Text of the recommendation

47. The Committee recommends that the State party implement the United Nations Rules for the Treatment of Women Prisoners and Non-custodial Measures for Women Offenders (the Bangkok Rules), guarantee the separation of detained women from convicts, ensure their access to adequate nutrition, drinking water, sanitation and healthcare and strengthen support programmes for their integration upon release.

Citation

Comittee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, Concluding observations on the seventh periodic report of Burkina Faso, CEDAW/C/BFA/CO/7 (2017). Par. 47. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsmPYo5NfAsNvhO7uZb6iXOTK9%2BfRfBgdIv4CdOamQuoNZsUK25z%2FemxHsUsjW7wjt4OTFVpfTbGehyQmAqHGelGz1NVv2K29UH%2B0vvoMUTvC

2022 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Vietnam, par. 40 (d) and 38 (c), (d), (e) (2022) - 2406

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-vietnam-par-40-d-and-38-c-d-e-2022

Food policy Tobacco control Other Health-related issues CRC Food marketing regulations Education and information Breastfeeding Tobacco use

40. Recalling its general comment No. 20 (2016) on the implementation of the rights of the child during adolescence, and targets 3.3, 3.7 and 5.6 of the Sustainable Development Goals, the Committee recommends that the State party: (d) Strengthen measures to address the incidence of tobacco, drug and alcohol abuse among children, and to provide children with accurate and objective...

Text of the recommendation

40. Recalling its general comment No. 20 (2016) on the implementation of the rights of the child during adolescence, and targets 3.3, 3.7 and 5.6 of the Sustainable Development Goals, the Committee recommends that the State party: (d) Strengthen measures to address the incidence of tobacco, drug and alcohol abuse among children, and to provide children with accurate and objective information on preventing substance abuse, including tobacco and alcohol abuse.

38. The Committee recommends that the State party: (c) Strengthen coordination across relevant ministries to address child malnutrition, stunting and obesity, and raise public awareness on these issues; (d) Promote breastfeeding and monitor the implementation of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes; (e) Strengthen measures to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV, combat the stigmatization of children with HIV/AIDS and enable children affected and infected by HIV/AIDS to remain in their family environments.

Citation

Comittee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the combined fifth and sixth periodic reports of Viet Nam, CRC/C/VNM/CO/5-6 (2022). Par. 40 (d), 38 (c), (d), (e). Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhst%2F9PBefxPb2bhmNGPOCsAhtwxQJNisnU9iAOKlSJZ5ci0QcrYzkZjjtFT0VmtQ%2FUZNIhy8xVtyse5bxC%2B%2FdF%2FxQQAtblaY%2Bkq9WuxkUSO6j

2005 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Philippines, par. 80 (a) and 84 (c) (2005) - 2403

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-philippines-par-80-a-and-84-c-2005

Tobacco control Other Health-related issues CRC Education and information Tobacco use

80. The Committee recommends to the State party that it: Provide adolescents with information on the harmful consequences of alcohol, drug and tobacco use. The Committee recommends to the State party that it:(a) Effectively implement its domestic labour laws and the National Programme against Child Labour as well as its subprogrammes, for example...

Text of the recommendation

80. The Committee recommends to the State party that it: Provide adolescents with information on the harmful consequences of alcohol, drug and tobacco use. The Committee recommends to the State party that it:(a) Effectively implement its domestic labour laws and the National Programme against Child Labour as well as its subprogrammes, for example the Elimination of Child Labour in the Tobacco Industry Project and ensure that child workers participate in discussions about the solution to this problem.

84. (c) Ensure that street children are reached through trained street educators and counsellors and provided with adequate nutrition, clothing and shelter as well as with social and health services and educational opportunities, including vocational and life skills training, in order to support their full development and provide them with adequate protection and assistance;

Citation

Comittee on the Rights of the Child, CONSIDERATION OF REPORTS SUBMITTED BY STATES PARTIESUNDER ARTICLE 44 OF THE CONVENTION, CRC/C/15/Add.259 (2005). Par. 80 (a) and 84 (c). Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsgnXZ0ChBsrwmcy8%2F%2BFNoDGaBd%2Bir1PK%2BbsnVoDpoJKAXkROkf7%2BH%2FDnfGOESRALM1LqaOV2Qe4mJrBBu%2FulxZ0hbgE9KDAA8g6pI7yyqKYE

2009 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Philippines, par. 56 (e) and par. 58 (2009) - 2400

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-philippines-par-56-e-and-par-58-2009

Food policy CRC Education and information Food and nutrition security Breastfeeding

56. The Committee recommends that the State party: (e) Effectively address the issue of under-nutrition by providing adequate nutritional food and supplements, as well as education on healthy early habits. 58. The Committee recommends that the State party further encourage exclusive breastfeeding for six months after birth with modifications for an appropriate infant diet thereafter and take measures to improve...

Text of the recommendation

56. The Committee recommends that the State party: (e) Effectively address the issue of under-nutrition by providing adequate nutritional food and supplements, as well as education on healthy early habits.

58. The Committee recommends that the State party further encourage exclusive breastfeeding for six months after birth with modifications for an appropriate infant diet thereafter and take measures to improve the nutritional status of children through education and promotion of healthy feeding practices.

Citation

Comittee on the Rights of the Child, CONSIDERATION OF REPORTS SUBMITTED BY STATES PARTIES UNDER ARTICLE 44 OF THE CONVENTION, CRC/C/PHL/CO/3-4 (2009). Par. 56 (e) and 58. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhslzx7U%2BnCLlaw9ePDNleLZDOKUxk7Uo4Hr%2BRgtgC3IgizRrMwho9LRt2UMnm43z2TnWOoSxIr2xR7Qxkd1F3nvLkI3b%2BEIVdGWeMfIUeXUNk

2016 - Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Recommendation for Philippines, par. 44 (a) (2016) - 2397

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-elimination-of-discrimination-against-women-recommendation-for-philippines-par-44-a-2016

Food policy CEDAW Food and nutrition security Access to water

44. With reference to its general recommendation No. 34, the Committee recommends that the State party: (a) Ensure that rural women have access to adequate food, nutrition, water and sanitation, taking into account international human rights standards on such rights....

Text of the recommendation

44. With reference to its general recommendation No. 34, the Committee recommends that the State party:

(a) Ensure that rural women have access to adequate food, nutrition, water and sanitation, taking into account international human rights standards on such rights.

Citation

Comittee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, Concluding observations on the combined seventh and eighth periodic reports of the Philippines, CEDAW/C/PHL/CO/7-8 (2016). Par. 44 (a). Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CEDAW%2FC%2FPHL%2FCO%2F7-8&Lang=en

2016 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Pakistan, par. 56 (2016) - 2395

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-pakistan-par-56-2016

Food policy Tobacco control Other Health-related issues CRC Education and information Tobacco use

56. The Committee recommends that the State party take appropriate measures to address the issue of drug abuse among children including by, providing Children and/or adolescents with accurate and objective information and life skills education on preventing substance abuse — including tobacco and alcohol abuse — and by developing accessible and youth-friendly drug-dependence treatment and harm reduction services. It also...

Text of the recommendation

56. The Committee recommends that the State party take appropriate measures to address the issue of drug abuse among children including by, providing Children and/or adolescents with accurate and objective information and life skills education on preventing substance abuse — including tobacco and alcohol abuse — and by developing accessible and youth-friendly drug-dependence treatment and harm reduction services. It also recommends that the State party adopt standards applicable to rehabilitation centres, especially concerning the treatment of persons below the age of 18 years.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the fifth periodic report of Pakistan, CRC/C/PAK/CO/5 (2016). Par. 56. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsj6w6N%2F47zTb2GZCw8ZJMHBo%2FKlxkcysXmsISop1yo0QfaT1E6yAhOmn1FhkSztV8IkZY%2F0FcydIBPHSpz3tSnn6uT1XlVbgwtgC5kzi77Xw

2016 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Pakistan, par. 23 (b) (2016) - 2392

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-pakistan-par-23-b-2016

Food policy CRC Food and nutrition security

23. The Committee urges the State party to take immediate measures to: (...) (b) Prevent and combat malnutrition, especially among vulnerable and disadvantaged groups of children, such as those living in poverty, including Dalit children....

Text of the recommendation

23. The Committee urges the State party to take immediate measures to: (...)

(b) Prevent and combat malnutrition, especially among vulnerable and disadvantaged groups of children, such as those living in poverty, including Dalit children.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the fifth periodic report of Pakistan, CRC/C/PAK/CO/5 (2016). Par. 23 (b). Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsj6w6N%2F47zTb2GZCw8ZJMHBo%2FKlxkcysXmsISop1yo0QfaT1E6yAhOmn1FhkSztV8IkZY%2F0FcydIBPHSpz3tSnn6uT1XlVbgwtgC5kzi77Xw

2017 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Pakistan, par. 70 (2017) - 2389

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-pakistan-par-70-2017

Food policy CESCR Food and nutrition security

70. The Committee recommends that the State party take all steps necessary to address persisting acute hunger and malnutrition and, in particular, the critical nutritional needs of infants and children. It also recommends that the State party allocate sufficient resources for the full implementation of the infant and young child feeding strategy and that it adopt a legislative framework protecting...

Text of the recommendation

70. The Committee recommends that the State party take all steps necessary to address persisting acute hunger and malnutrition and, in particular, the critical nutritional needs of infants and children. It also recommends that the State party allocate sufficient resources for the full implementation of the infant and young child feeding strategy and that it adopt a legislative framework protecting the right to adequate food and nutrition and a national action plan on food security and nutrition that is in line with the Committee’s general comment No. 12 (1999) on the right to adequate food and the Voluntary Guidelines to Support the Progressive Realization of the Right to Adequate Food in the Context of National Food Security.

Citation

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women,Concluding observations on the initial report of Pakistan, E/C.12/PAK/CO/1 (2017). Par. 70. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=4slQ6QSmlBEDzFEovLCuW3lUtW8Y9xuIXXVdepJkLEBl2eTfzdc0EmUYq2yOFEIParZxt9%2BGle%2FD3RkqHcm8K2ErJQElBGHXuMReih5YHD3N8rgWLP3z%2BXynWwmk1H4e

2012 - Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Recommendation for Indonesia, par. 42 (a) and 46 (a) (2012) - 2386

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-elimination-of-discrimination-against-women-recommendation-for-indonesia-par-42-a-and-46-a-2012

Food policy CEDAW Access to water

42. "In line with its general recommendation No. 24 (1999), on women and health, the Committee calls upon the State party to: (a) Ensure that adequate funding is allocated to health, and establish a system for monitoring the effective and transparent delivery of health-care services." 46. "The Committee urges the State party to: (a) Pay special attention to the needs of...

Text of the recommendation

42. "In line with its general recommendation No. 24 (1999), on women and health, the Committee calls upon the State party to: (a) Ensure that adequate funding is allocated to health, and establish a system for monitoring the effective and transparent delivery of health-care services."

46. "The Committee urges the State party to: (a) Pay special attention to the needs of rural women to ensure that they have access to health, education, clean water, sanitation services and income-generating projects; and eliminate discrimination in women’s ownership and inheritance of land;"

Citation

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Concluding observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women on Indonesia, CEDAW/C/IDN/CO/6-7 (2012). Par. 42 (a) and 46 (a). Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CEDAW%2FC%2FIDN%2FCO%2F6-7&Lang=en

2014 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Indonesia, par 31 and par 35 (b) (d) (2014) - 2383

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-indonesia-par-31-and-par-35-b-d-2014

Food policy Tobacco control Other Health-related issues CESCR Food production Education and information Food and nutrition security Access to water Smoke and emissions’ free environments (SFE) Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS) FCTC ratification

31. "The Committee recommends that the State party adopt a human rights-based approach to its food policy, including by: (a) Addressing critical issues to all aspects of the food system, including the production, processing, distribution and consumption of safe food, as well as parallel measures in the fields of health and education, especially in disadvantaged areas; and (b)...

Text of the recommendation

31. "The Committee recommends that the State party adopt a human rights-based approach to its food policy, including by: (a) Addressing critical issues to all aspects of the food system, including the production, processing, distribution and consumption of safe food, as well as parallel measures in the fields of health and education, especially in disadvantaged areas; and (b) Ensuring that activities of the private business sector are in conformity with the right to food. The Committee draws the attention of the State party to its general comment No. 12 (1999) on the right to adequate food."

35.(b) "The Committee recommends that the State party: Enact anti-tobacco legislation which prohibits indoor smoking in public buildings and in the workplace and enforces a comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship;"

35.(d) "Apply a human rights-based approach to the treatment of tobacco and drug addiction, and provide appropriate health care, culturally sensitive psychological support services and rehabilitation to such persons, including effective drug dependence treatment such as opioid substitution therapy. The Committee also encourages the State party to ratify the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control."

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Concluding observations of the initial report of Indonesia, E/C.12/IDN/CO/1 (2014). Par. 31.(a) and (b) and Par 35.(b) and (d). Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E%2FC.12%2FIDN%2FCO%2F1&Lang=en

2014 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Indonesia, par. 54 and par. 66 (d) (2014) - 2380

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-indonesia-par-54-and-par-66-d-2014

Food policy Tobacco control Other Health-related issues CRC Education and information Food and nutrition security Breastfeeding Access to water Tobacco use

54. The Committee recommends that the State party allocate all the necessary human, technical and financial resources to address drug use by Children and/or adolescents by, inter alia, providing Children and/or adolescents with accurate and objective information aimed at avoiding and preventing substance abuse, including tobacco and alcohol, and develop accessible and youth-friendly drug dependence treatment and harm reduction services...

Text of the recommendation

54. The Committee recommends that the State party allocate all the necessary human, technical and financial resources to address drug use by Children and/or adolescents by, inter alia, providing Children and/or adolescents with accurate and objective information aimed at avoiding and preventing substance abuse, including tobacco and alcohol, and develop accessible and youth-friendly drug dependence treatment and harm reduction services as well as life skills education.

66.(d) Ensure that, in all circumstances, children are separated from unrelated adults, have access to sufficient food, clean drinking water and sanitation, as well as health care, education and recreation.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the combined third and fourth periodic reports of Indonesia, CRC/C/IDN/CO/3-4 (2014) Par. 54 and par. 66.(d). Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2FC%2FIDN%2FCO%2F3-4&Lang=en

2014 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for India, par. 64 (c) and (d) (2014) - 2377

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-india-par-64-c-and-d-2014

Food policy Other Health-related issues India CRC Education and information Food and nutrition security Breastfeeding Access to water

64. In the light of its general comment No. 15 (2013) on the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health, the Committee recommends that the State party: (c) Ensure the effective implementation of the National Food Security Act, 2013, which contains provisions aimed at combating children’s undernourishment; (d) Enhance efforts to promote...

Text of the recommendation

64. In the light of its general comment No. 15 (2013) on the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health, the Committee recommends that the State party: (c) Ensure the effective implementation of the National Food Security Act, 2013, which contains provisions aimed at combating children’s undernourishment; (d) Enhance efforts to promote exclusive breastfeeding practices, including breastfeeding from birth, complementary feeding strategies, with or without provision of food supplements, as well as micronutrient interventions for mothers; ensure the effective implementation of, and compliance with, the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (WHO, 1981); put in place a monitoring and reporting system to identify violations of the Code and take stringent measures in all situations of violations of the Code, which include the promotion and distribution of infant formula samples and promotional materials by private-sector companies involved in the marketing and distribution of infant formula.


Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the combined third and fourth periodic reports of India, CRC/C/IND/CO/3-4 (2014). Par. 64.(c) (d). Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2FC%2FIND%2FCO%2F3-4&Lang=en

2013 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Egypt, par. 6(2013) - 2374

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-egypt-par-62013

Food policy Other Health-related issues CESCR Fiscal measures Education and information Food and nutrition security Access to water

6. The Committee recommends that the State party increase the proportion of its budget allocated to sectors directly related to the Covenant rights, particularly health, education, housing and food....

Text of the recommendation

6. The Committee recommends that the State party increase the proportion of its budget allocated to sectors directly related to the Covenant rights, particularly health, education, housing and food.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Concluding observations on the combined second to fourth periodic report of Egypt, E/C.12/EGY/CO/2-4 (2013). Par. 6. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E%2FC.12%2FEGY%2FCO%2F2-4&Lang=en

2005 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for China, par. 59 (2005) - 2371

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-china-par-59-2005

Food policy Other Health-related issues China CESCR Fiscal measures Education and information

59.The Committee strongly recommends that the State party take immediate measures, inter alia by increasing allocations, for the protection of economic, social and cultural rights of persons living in disadvantaged areas, in particular with regard to adequate housing, food and water, health services and sanitation. The Committee calls upon the State party to develop a mechanism for measuring the...

Text of the recommendation

59.The Committee strongly recommends that the State party take immediate measures, inter alia by increasing allocations, for the protection of economic, social and cultural rights of persons living in disadvantaged areas, in particular with regard to adequate housing, food and water, health services and sanitation. The Committee calls upon the State party to develop a mechanism for measuring the poverty level and to monitor it closely, and refers the State party to the Committee’s statement on poverty adopted in May 2001.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under articles 16 and 17 of the Covenant, Concluding observations of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights People’s Republic of China (including Hong Kong and Macao), E/C.12/1/Add.107 (2005). Par. 59. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E%2FC.12%2F1%2FAdd.107&Lang=en

2005 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for China, par. 67 (2005) - 2368

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-china-par-67-2005

Tobacco control Other Health-related issues China CRC Education and information Tobacco use

67. The Committee recommends that in all areas under its jurisdiction, the State party expand preventive and therapeutic mental health services for adolescents and develop programmes to decrease tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and drug abuse among adolescents, in particular through the development of campaigns specifically designed for adolescents on health behavioural choices and life skills. It further recommends that...

Text of the recommendation

67. The Committee recommends that in all areas under its jurisdiction, the State party expand preventive and therapeutic mental health services for adolescents and develop programmes to decrease tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and drug abuse among adolescents, in particular through the development of campaigns specifically designed for adolescents on health behavioural choices and life skills. It further recommends that in the Hong Kong SAR, the State party continue to strengthen its efforts to prevent suicide among the youth.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations: China (including Hong Kong and Macau Special Administrative Regions), CRC/C/CHN/CO/2 (2005). Par. 67. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2FC%2FCHN%2FCO%2F2&Lang=en

2013 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for China, par. 66 (a) (2013) - 2365

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-china-par-66-a-2013

Food policy China CRC Food production

66. The Committee strongly recommends that the State party: (a) Intensify its efforts to reform laws and strengthen implementation of regulations on food and health safety standards, including for the business sector, and ensure that any officials or companies violating international and national environment and health standards are appropriately sanctioned and remedies provided when violations occur....

Text of the recommendation

66. The Committee strongly recommends that the State party: (a) Intensify its efforts to reform laws and strengthen implementation of regulations on food and health safety standards, including for the business sector, and ensure that any officials or companies violating international and national environment and health standards are appropriately sanctioned and remedies provided when violations occur.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the combined third and fourth periodic reports of China, adopted by the Committee at its sixty-fourth session (16 September–4 October 2013), CRC/C/CHN/CO/3-4 (2013). Par. 66 (a). Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhso23wCwLcI6mikolpecekJiKxokT9PZd%2BAIuwnAS9cTQ8odgT3SN5r8b2fwEGfzcssJ8eKxAFqJbvyE3s8JRY4Uw7I4nkOnElqyaQajNCXsj

2014 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for China, par. 29 (2014) - 2362

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-china-par-29-2014

Food policy China CESCR Food marketing regulations Food production Food and nutrition security

29. The Committee is concerned about the situation of food insecurity in some of the poor rural areas, particularly in the western mountainous areas, and about the persistence of child malnutrition, mainly in rural areas and in the Tibet Autonomous Region. Despite the efforts made by the State party to strengthen food safety supervision, including through the adoption of the...

Text of the recommendation

29. The Committee is concerned about the situation of food insecurity in some of the poor rural areas, particularly in the western mountainous areas, and about the persistence of child malnutrition, mainly in rural areas and in the Tibet Autonomous Region. Despite the efforts made by the State party to strengthen food safety supervision, including through the adoption of the Food Safety Law, the Committee remains concerned about the shortcomings in the implementation of that Law (art. 11).

The Committee urges the State party to strengthen its efforts to protect the right to adequate food. The Committee recommends that the State party step up its efforts to address effectively the situation of food insecurity and child malnutrition in poor rural areas, particularly in the western mountainous areas and in the Tibet Autonomous Region. The Committee recommends that the State party take all necessary measures to enforce the Food Safety Law effectively, to strengthen its efforts with regard to food safety supervision and to ensure the production, processing, distribution, marketing and consumption of safe food. The Committee draws the State party’s attention to its general comment No. 12 (1999) on the right to adequate food and to the recommendations of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food (A/HRC/19/59/Add.1, paras. 40–46).

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Concluding observations on the second periodic report of China, including Hong Kong, China, and Macao, China, E/C.12/CHN/CO/2 (2014). Par. 29. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=4slQ6QSmlBEDzFEovLCuW%2BALqOml1btoJd4YxREVF2VW58oMDPLAMUILqfo6v%2B47B8DRJbTAIMbcvgyEKXPdGsEnfi5eWE%2BWbfziSl6SiVeI%2FJnjrlrdBib9a4aoakRm

2009 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Cambodia, par. 28 (2009) - 2359

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-cambodia-par-28-2009

Food policy CESCR Nutritional surveillance Food and nutrition security

28. The Committee recommends to the State party to strengthen its strategic interventions in response to the alarming situation of increasing food insecurity. The Committee requests the State party in its next periodic report to provide detailed information on the results of these strategic interventions. ...

Text of the recommendation

28. The Committee recommends to the State party to strengthen its strategic interventions in response to the alarming situation of increasing food insecurity. The Committee requests the State party in its next periodic report to provide detailed information on the results of these strategic interventions.


Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, CONSIDERATION OF REPORTS SUBMITTED BY STATES PARTIES UNDER ARTICLES 16 AND 17 OF THE COVENANT, E/C.12/KHM/CO/1 (2009). Par. 28. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=4slQ6QSmlBEDzFEovLCuW3xCTTnuRFHujhUnAmZRMp%2Fl0s67oY%2FJq49KpGv1ac3d3Lu80kjs6bZWWP3ckv5EbwW6E6uOI8apgyUlBjMagYJ7MnD09rq1rMHXAlyaGozU

2019 - Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Recommendation for Cambodia, par. 39 (c) (2019) - 2354

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-elimination-of-discrimination-against-women-recommendation-for-cambodia-par-39-c-2019

Food policy CEDAW Food and nutrition security

39. The Committee recommends that the State party: (...) (c) Integrate the nutritional needs of women and/or girls into broader national strategies and policies on nutrition to ensure that their specific needs at various stages of life are met, especially among women of childbearing age in rural areas....

Text of the recommendation

39. The Committee recommends that the State party: (...) (c) Integrate the nutritional needs of women and/or girls into broader national strategies and policies on nutrition to ensure that their specific needs at various stages of life are met, especially among women of childbearing age in rural areas.

Citation

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Concluding observations on the sixth periodic report of Cambodia, CEDAW/C/KHM/CO/6 (2019). Par. 39 (c). Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsglff%2FiazrVw%2BcyfdY9GxZ5bSfxXA5KrNzKiYSQz0rFB5gi2CnbaBYZjQXYsuDPG8zwJOMQYrnR0kzrDfbbRUOLlP9FY3Pa3qLqF8UVCDJxW

2022 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Cambodia, par. 38 (c) and (d) (2022) - 2351

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-cambodia-par-38-c-and-d-2022

Tobacco control CRC Education and information Tobacco use

38. The Committee is concerned about rising child pregnancy rates, the focus of education on abstinence to prevent child pregnancies and the prevalence of substance abuse among adolescents. Recalling its general comment No. 20 (2016) on the implementation of the rights of the child during adolescence, and taking note of targets 3.7 and 5.6 of the Sustainable Development Goals, the...

Text of the recommendation

38. The Committee is concerned about rising child pregnancy rates, the focus of education on abstinence to prevent child pregnancies and the prevalence of substance abuse among adolescents. Recalling its general comment No. 20 (2016) on the implementation of the rights of the child during adolescence, and taking note of targets 3.7 and 5.6 of the Sustainable Development Goals, the Committee reiterates its previous recommendations and urges the State party to: (...)

(c) Expeditiously adopt the draft law on alcohol in order to establish a minimum age for alcohol consumption, and adopt legislative measures to prohibit the sale of tobacco and drugs.

(d) Provide children with accurate and objective information on preventing substance abuse, including of tobacco and alcohol, and develop accessible and child-friendly drug dependence treatment and harm reduction services for adolescents.

Citation

2023 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Cambodia, par. 41 (2023) - 2348

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-cambodia-par-41-2023

Food policy CESCR Fiscal measures Nutritional surveillance Education and information Food and nutrition security Trade and investment

41. The Committee recommends that the State party redouble its efforts to protect the right to adequate food and make an assessment of the implementation of its Second National Strategy for Food Security and Nutrition 2019–2023, in order to tackle food insecurity and malnutrition in an effective and comprehensive manner, including by establishing programmes to increase the level of minimum...

Text of the recommendation

41. The Committee recommends that the State party redouble its efforts to protect the right to adequate food and make an assessment of the implementation of its Second National Strategy for Food Security and Nutrition 2019–2023, in order to tackle food insecurity and malnutrition in an effective and comprehensive manner, including by establishing programmes to increase the level of minimum income support, promote healthier diets, incorporate trade, land management, education and fiscal policy elements, set clear, time-bound targets and establish appropriate mechanisms for assessing the progress made.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Concluding observations on the second periodic report of Cambodia, E/C.12/KHM/CO/2 (2023). Par. 41. Available at: 2BYe62Ss7WypmsG01gopbAbYW6kF7OpSpHEjxFdG5jreehCXS9QjQsdIKpGnNXsi4HlA67pqsTmLZW

2015 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Bangladesh par. 61 (2015) - 2345

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-bangladesh-par-61-2015

Tobacco control Other Health-related issues CRC Education and information Tobacco use

61. The Committee recommends that the State party provide Children and/or adolescents with accurate and objective information and life-skills education on preventing substance abuse, including the abuse of tobacco and alcohol but especially hard drugs, as well as glue and solvent sniffing, through public school programmes and media campaigns, and protect children from harmful misinformation and models. The Committee also...

Text of the recommendation

61. The Committee recommends that the State party provide Children and/or adolescents with accurate and objective information and life-skills education on preventing substance abuse, including the abuse of tobacco and alcohol but especially hard drugs, as well as glue and solvent sniffing, through public school programmes and media campaigns, and protect children from harmful misinformation and models. The Committee also recommends that the State party develop accessible and anonymous drug dependence treatments and harm reduction services for children and young people.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the fifth periodic report of Bangladesh, CRC/C/BDG/CO/5 (2015). Par. 61. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2FC%2FBGD%2FCO%2F5&Lang=en

2018 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Bangladesh, par. 57 and 58 (2018) - 2342

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-bangladesh-par-57-and-58-2018

Food policy CESCR Food and nutrition security

57. The Committee recommends that the State party redouble its efforts to: (a) Prevent food crises, including through the effective forecasting of food shortages and by securing food availability and distribution for areas in need; (b) ...

Text of the recommendation

57. The Committee recommends that the State party redouble its efforts to:

(a) Prevent food crises, including through the effective forecasting of food shortages and by securing food availability and distribution for areas in need;

(b) Fully implement the Food Safety Act, 2013 and the related rules of 2014;

(c) Develop a national strategy for food and nutrition security, taking into account the Voluntary Guidelines to Support the Progressive Realization of the Right to Adequate Food in the Context of National Food Security.

58. The Committee draws the attention of the State party to its general comment No. 12 (1999) on the right to adequate food.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights,Concluding observations on the initial report of Bangladesh, E/C.12/BGD/CO/1 (2018). Par. 57 and 58. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=4slQ6QSmlBEDzFEovLCuWwpdI7QZ9ZIlVnEnVcAytL1KqJU9GxfzRiExOku4WSVPsJDWOR5qJpoyl4XsHdw%2FeT5bGQbWuN6yiMNz%2BUPYMnJv1oKGMtYvPbtbCvtNnAlT

2007 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Kazakhstan, par. 51 and 52 (a) (2010) - 2339

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-kazakhstan-par-51-and-52-a-2010

Tobacco control Other Health-related issues CRC Industry interference Tobacco use

51. The Committee notes that some efforts are being undertaken to promote healthy lifestyles through the “Youth well-being” programme. However, the Committee remains concerned at the high incidence of drug abuse and the widespread alcoholism and tobacco use. (...) 52. The Committee recommends that the State party: (a) Take all necessary measures to fight substance abuse, and strengthen the programme of...

Text of the recommendation

51. The Committee notes that some efforts are being undertaken to promote healthy lifestyles through the “Youth well-being” programme. However, the Committee remains concerned at the high incidence of drug abuse and the widespread alcoholism and tobacco use. (...)

52. The Committee recommends that the State party: (a) Take all necessary measures to fight substance abuse, and strengthen the programme of health education in schools.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child,CONSIDERATION OF REPORTS SUBMITTED BY STATES PARTIES UNDER ARTICLE 44 OF THE CONVENTION, CRC/C/KAZ/CO/3 (2007). Par. 51 and 52 (a). Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsjV2jkLOVHB6lp%2F7QQg8qH7OhfdpaCbLyHEPlAr6gqJiTIunCTSdIN9qGJhWtxWk1Pm7KDcH%2B1ZA8owE1GoyqWFUvhcRMSPj%2BaCeKRkVOfqH

2010 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Kazakhstan, par. 31 and 27 (2010) - 2336

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-kazakhstan-par-31-and-27-2010

Food policy Other Health-related issues CESCR Education and information Access to water

31. ...The Committee recommends that the State party address disparities between urban and rural areas and among regions with regard to adequate housing, sanitation systems and water connections. The Committee requests the State party in its next periodic report to provide detailed information relating to the housing situation, including the number of urban slum-dwellers and the percentage of dwellings in...

Text of the recommendation

31. ...The Committee recommends that the State party address disparities between urban and rural areas and among regions with regard to adequate housing, sanitation systems and water connections. The Committee requests the State party in its next periodic report to provide detailed information relating to the housing situation, including the number of urban slum-dwellers and the percentage of dwellings in rural areas that do not have access to clean drinking water and proper sewage and sanitation systems. The Committee is concerned about the persistence of child labour in the State party, including by children of migrant workers in tobacco and cotton farms.

27. The Committee is also concerned that these children do not attend school during farming periods. The Committee calls on the State party to take urgent measures to ensure protection of all children against all forms of exploitation and undertake effective measures to enable them to fully enjoy their right to education.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights,Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under articles 16 and 17 of the Covenant, E/C.12/KAZ/CO/1 (2010). Par. 31 and 27. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=4slQ6QSmlBEDzFEovLCuWzkLn5QA2sHMzcgILbdGh1oHJDaoF4oW7hS2eX2xZiod9%2BG8RAU92legDKsCRAMcvkAFGLsrOIdLT5ni66nFzcZ8SaNKGbGaOxpeJigRmlrP

2019 - Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Recommendation for Kazakhstan, par. 44 (a) (2019) - 2333

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-elimination-of-discrimination-against-women-recommendation-for-kazakhstan-par-44-a-2019

Food policy CEDAW Access to water

44. The Committee recommends that the State party: (a) Strengthen access for rural women to safe drinking water, health care, formal employment and entrepreneurship, and ensure that the specific needs of rural women are met and that they are aware of the opportunities and benefits available to them, including through the Internet....

Text of the recommendation

44. The Committee recommends that the State party: (a) Strengthen access for rural women to safe drinking water, health care, formal employment and entrepreneurship, and ensure that the specific needs of rural women are met and that they are aware of the opportunities and benefits available to them, including through the Internet.

Citation

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women,Concluding observations on the fifth periodic report of Kazakhstan, CEDAW/C/KAZ/CO/5 (2019). Par. 44 (a). Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsglff%2FiazrVw%2BcyfdY9GxZ5qyL8U47NsbKdrKR%2BR3rnRv0xyGiOpaHJd38wHbs%2FkDDEga9Irqc%2BIe8spNAMTF5T418jg21QFvbiB8VbelmzX

2022 - Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Recommendation for Azerbaijan, par. 38 (2022) - 2331

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-elimination-of-discrimination-against-women-recommendation-for-azerbaijan-par-38-2022

Food policy CEDAW Fiscal measures Food production Food and nutrition security Access to water

38. The Committee recommends that the State party combat poverty among rural women by ensuring access to education, adequate water and sanitation, formal employment, low-interest loans without collateral and other forms of financial credit for agribusinesses, and ownership and use of land. The Committee also recommends that the State party integrate a gender perspective into its agricultural policies and ensure...

Text of the recommendation

38. The Committee recommends that the State party combat poverty among rural women by ensuring access to education, adequate water and sanitation, formal employment, low-interest loans without collateral and other forms of financial credit for agribusinesses, and ownership and use of land. The Committee also recommends that the State party integrate a gender perspective into its agricultural policies and ensure the equal participation of rural women in decision-making on agricultural policies and in leadership positions.

Citation

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women,Concluding observations on the sixth periodic report of Azerbaijan, CEDAW/C/AZE/CO/6 (2022). Par. 38. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsgcjdm0xgERNaIXh22nhTUne82HffUBixL3cJQgfEppxDlNAQrbaKw%2FYPIKgAA%2BGTRyLdezeZbkfV4BpC5gGMRC5umnCjYphyDpn%2FY3lHnLm

2022 - Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Recommendation for Azerbaijan par. 36 (a) (2022) - 2329

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-elimination-of-discrimination-against-women-recommendation-for-azerbaijan-par-36-a-2022

Food policy CEDAW Food production Access to water

36. (a) Strengthen transformative policies and strategies to reduce the burden of unpaid care work on women, particularly rural women; facilitate access to good-quality and affordable gender-responsive public services, including in relation to health care, education, childcare, transportation, water, land use, housing and energy services; and generate data on and establish the monetization of unpaid care work as a baseline...

Text of the recommendation

36. (a) Strengthen transformative policies and strategies to reduce the burden of unpaid care work on women, particularly rural women; facilitate access to good-quality and affordable gender-responsive public services, including in relation to health care, education, childcare, transportation, water, land use, housing and energy services; and generate data on and establish the monetization of unpaid care work as a baseline for its recognition and compensation

Citation

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women,Concluding observations on the sixth periodic report of Azerbaijan, CEDAW/C/AZE/CO/6 (2022). Par. 36 (a) . Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsgcjdm0xgERNaIXh22nhTUne82HffUBixL3cJQgfEppxDlNAQrbaKw%2FYPIKgAA%2BGTRyLdezeZbkfV4BpC5gGMRC5umnCjYphyDpn%2FY3lHnLm

2022 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for the Netherlands par. 28 (b) (2022) - 2326

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-the-netherlands-par-28-b-2022

Food policy CRC Food marketing regulations Education and information

28. The Committee recommends that the State party: (b) Continue efforts to address overweight and obesity in children and actions to promote a healthy lifestyle, including by regulating the marketing of unhealthy foods to children, raising public awareness of nutrition issues and ensuring that overweight and obese children receive the necessary support under the Young People at a Healthy Weight...

Text of the recommendation

28. The Committee recommends that the State party: (b) Continue efforts to address overweight and obesity in children and actions to promote a healthy lifestyle, including by regulating the marketing of unhealthy foods to children, raising public awareness of nutrition issues and ensuring that overweight and obese children receive the necessary support under the Young People at a Healthy Weight programme

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child,Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, CRC/C/NLD/CO/5-6 (2022). Par. 28 (b) . Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsunkTiY%2FvDoWjbtx8Nu6M%2Bz0Psu05thabEWNGU2k4jXahNgl29madiZIHIx4gKIDHE6nJYb5BciGDVCPGjGg3Z2eh%2FjMHIPcotTNVYjan3bA

2011 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Italy par. 53 and 54(2011) - 2324

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-italy-par-53-and-542011

Tobacco control Other Health-related issues CRC Education and information Tobacco use

53. The Committee is deeply concerned at the increase in use of illicit drugs, in particular amphetamines, among adolescents in the State party. The Committee notes with concern that such drugs are often used to improve school performance and to fight depression. Further, the Committee is concerned at the high levels of alcohol consumption and tobacco use among children, and...

Text of the recommendation

53. The Committee is deeply concerned at the increase in use of illicit drugs, in particular amphetamines, among adolescents in the State party. The Committee notes with concern that such drugs are often used to improve school performance and to fight depression. Further, the Committee is concerned at the high levels of alcohol consumption and tobacco use among children, and the negative influence of advertisements, through direct advertising or through the mass media in general.

54. The Committee, referring to its general comment No. 4, recommends that the State party take relevant measures to eliminate the use of illicit drugs by children, through communication programmes and campaigns, the provision of life-skills education to adolescents, and the training of teachers, social workers and other relevant officials. This must include programmes on promoting healthy lifestyles among adolescents to prevent the use of alcohol and tobacco and the enforcement of regulations on the advertising of such products to children. The Committee encourages the State party to present information on such efforts and data on the use of illicit drugs by children in its next periodic report to the Committee.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, CRC/C/ITA/CO/3-4 (2011). Par. 53 and 54. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsunkTiY%2FvDoWjbtx8Nu6M%2Bz0Psu05thabEWNGU2k4jXahNgl29madiZIHIx4gKIDHE6nJYb5BciGDVCPGjGg3Z2eh%2FjMHIPcotTNVYjan3bA

2011 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Italy par. 49 and 50 (2011) - 2321

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-italy-par-49-and-50-2011

Food policy CRC Food marketing regulations Education and information Breastfeeding

49.The Committee is concerned at the low rate of exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months, and the practice of providing complementary foods to infants from the age of four months. The Committee is further concerned at the unregulated marketing of food for infants, young children and adolescents, and inadequacies in the monitoring of the marketing of breast-milk substitutes. 50....

Text of the recommendation

49.The Committee is concerned at the low rate of exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months, and the practice of providing complementary foods to infants from the age of four months. The Committee is further concerned at the unregulated marketing of food for infants, young children and adolescents, and inadequacies in the monitoring of the marketing of breast-milk substitutes.

50. The Committee recommends that the State party take action to improve the practice of exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months, through awareness-raising measures including campaigns, information and training for relevant Government officials, particularly staff working in maternity units, and parents. The Committee further recommends that the State party strengthen the monitoring of existing marketing regulations relating to food for children and regulations relatingto the marketing of breast-milk substitutes, including bottles and teats, and ensure that such regulations are monitored on a regular basis and action is taken against those who violate the code.


Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, CRC/C/ITA/CO/3-4 (2011). Par. 49 and 50. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsunkTiY%2FvDoWjbtx8Nu6M%2Bz0Psu05thabEWNGU2k4jXahNgl29madiZIHIx4gKIDHE6nJYb5BciGDVCPGjGg3Z2eh%2FjMHIPcotTNVYjan3bA

2015 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Italy par. 19, 50 and 51 (2015) - 2318

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-italy-par-19-50-and-51-2015

Food policy CESCR Fiscal measures Food marketing regulations

19. The Committee also recommends that the State party take measures to increase the number of reception centres, to improve the living conditions therein and to ensure that everyone in the centres has access to medical care, interpreters, adequate food, clothing and social support. 50. The Committee is concerned that one in ten adults is obese, with persons with lower...

Text of the recommendation

19. The Committee also recommends that the State party take measures to increase the number of reception centres, to improve the living conditions therein and to ensure that everyone in the centres has access to medical care, interpreters, adequate food, clothing and social support.

50. The Committee is concerned that one in ten adults is obese, with persons with lower levels of education being most at risk, and about the significant increase in child obesity in the State party (art. 12).

51. The Committee recommends that the State party redouble its efforts to combat obesity, particularly among children. It also recommends that the State party introduce higher taxes on junk foods and sweet beverages and consider adopting strict regulations on the marketing of such products, while ensuring improved access to healthy diets.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, CONSIDERATION OF REPORTS SUBMITTED BY STATES PARTIES UNDER ARTICLE 44 OF THE CONVENTION, E/C.12/ITA/CO/5 (2015). Par. 19, 50 and 51. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E%2FC.12%2FITA%2FCO%2F5&Lang=en

2022 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Italy par. 56 (2022) - 2315

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-italy-par-56-2022

Food policy CESCR Fiscal measures

56. The Committee reiterates its previous recommendation that the State party introduce higher taxes on junk foods and sweet beverages, and further recommends that it lower taxes on healthy food products, ensure mandatory physical exercise in the primary school system and increase earmarked funding for anti-obesity programmes for children in the southern regions....

Text of the recommendation

56. The Committee reiterates its previous recommendation that the State party introduce higher taxes on junk foods and sweet beverages, and further recommends that it lower taxes on healthy food products, ensure mandatory physical exercise in the primary school system and increase earmarked funding for anti-obesity programmes for children in the southern regions.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, CONSIDERATION OF REPORTS SUBMITTED BY STATES PARTIES UNDER ARTICLE 44 OF THE CONVENTION, E/C.12/ITA/CO/6 (2022). Par. 56. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsgnXZ0ChBsrwmcy8%2F%2BFNoDH8GClHpAoPyEj3crT%2FKNnC4q%2B0e62r%2BoDZNpxk4glocfPHJ596z0pRvdl4egqxq4jbNPZ9yE5Kdl%2F3DocA6gM9

2004 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Germany par. 59 (b) (2004) - 2312

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-germany-par-59-b-2004

Food policy CRC Food and nutrition security

59. (b) Ensure that street children are provided with adequate food, clothing, housing, health care and educational opportunities, including vocational and life‑skills training, in order to support their full development....

Text of the recommendation

59. (b) Ensure that street children are provided with adequate food, clothing, housing, health care and educational opportunities, including vocational and life‑skills training, in order to support their full development.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, CONSIDERATION OF REPORTS SUBMITTED BY STATES PARTIES UNDER ARTICLE 44 OF THE CONVENTION, CRC/C/15/Add.226 (2004). Par. 59 (b). Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsgnXZ0ChBsrwmcy8%2F%2BFNoDH8GClHpAoPyEj3crT%2FKNnC4q%2B0e62r%2BoDZNpxk4glocfPHJ596z0pRvdl4egqxq4jbNPZ9yE5Kdl%2F3DocA6gM9

2011 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Germany Para. 9 (2011) - 2309

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-germany-para-9-2011

Food policy CESCR Trade and investment

9. The Committee notes with deep concern the impact of the State party’s agriculture and trade policies, which promote the export of subsidized agricultural products to developing countries, on the enjoyment of the right to an adequate standard of living and particularly on the right to food in the receiving countries. The Committee urges the State party to fully...

Text of the recommendation

9. The Committee notes with deep concern the impact of the State party’s agriculture and trade policies, which promote the export of subsidized agricultural products to developing countries, on the enjoyment of the right to an adequate standard of living and particularly on the right to food in the receiving countries. The Committee urges the State party to fully apply a human rights-based approach to its international trade and agriculture policies, including by reviewing the impact of subsidies on the enjoyment of economic, social and cultural rights in importing countries. In this regard, the Committee draws the attention of the State party to the guidelines on international measures, actions and commitments as contained in the FAO Voluntary Guidelines on the Right to Food (2004).

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Concluding observations on the combined seventh and eighth periodic reports of Germany, E/C.12/DEU/CO/5 (2011). Par. 9. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=4slQ6QSmlBEDzFEovLCuWx2r5QgrDoHhDa4HdzLZSD3KE9bLBSltP1o8ztaOh8fQGHTxuqI88JRWeK8ErggF91fXIRFTm%2F2I2ewtHryEAdsb55AGPNn4ygX27svwadXT

2022 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Germany par. 31 (d) (2022) - 2306

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-germany-par-31-d-2022

Tobacco control CRC Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS) Tobacco use

31. The Committee recommends that the State party... (d) Regulate the marketing of tobacco to children and continue to strengthen measures to provide adolescents with information on preventing substance abuse, including of tobacco and alcohol, and to ensure the early identification and adequate referral of adolescents requiring treatment for substance abuse;...

Text of the recommendation

31. The Committee recommends that the State party... (d) Regulate the marketing of tobacco to children and continue to strengthen measures to provide adolescents with information on preventing substance abuse, including of tobacco and alcohol, and to ensure the early identification and adequate referral of adolescents requiring treatment for substance abuse;

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the combined fifth and sixth periodic reports of Germany, CRC/C/DEU/CO/5-6 (2022). Par. 31 (d). Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsrVrBGd0Fukf%2FAkab12UC%2FYuMqo8od8mZT%2BO7YXVfBcM1IWvAZe5Nku1OEq%2F10EP9oX9AzMDb62JlkG7hV6y9tXtDsSrArjRUgMguQdW161B

2016 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for France par. 22 (b) and 68 (2016) - 2303

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-france-par-22-b-and-68-2016

Tobacco control Other Health-related issues CRC Education and information Tobacco use Environment and health

22. The Committee recommends that the State party:...(b) Ensure that companies effectively implement international standards, including on human rights, the environment and health. 68. The Committee recommends that the State party address the incidence of drug use by children and adolescents by, inter alia, providing children and adolescents with accurate and objective information as well as life skills education on...

Text of the recommendation

22. The Committee recommends that the State party:...(b) Ensure that companies effectively implement international standards, including on human rights, the environment and health.

68. The Committee recommends that the State party address the incidence of drug use by children and adolescents by, inter alia, providing children and adolescents with accurate and objective information as well as life skills education on preventing substance abuse, including of tobacco and alcohol, and develop accessible and youth-friendly drug dependence treatment and harm reduction services for children and young people.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the fifth periodic report of France, CRC/C/FRA/CO/5 (2016). Par. 22 (b) and 68. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsunLt%2FWNn9IUMCa5I2sTMky9H0t6Apsnxbu5hzZI1wZHQ27v2tg7RHSMFiRR1IfnF2Zv3VP%2Fzy6dXsmqAWdy5aN1NNe2Yi%2BI8zMJaQXD6Bm2

2016 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for France par. 47 (e) (2016) - 2300

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-france-par-47-e-2016

Food policy CESCR Access to water

47. The Committee urges the State party to... (e) Further the development of public water supply and sanitation systems and provide access to those systems at an affordable price in order to reduce the prevalence of parasitic and infectious diseases....

Text of the recommendation

47. The Committee urges the State party to... (e) Further the development of public water supply and sanitation systems and provide access to those systems at an affordable price in order to reduce the prevalence of parasitic and infectious diseases.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Concluding observations on the fifth periodic report of France, E/C.12/FRA/CO/4 (2016). Par. 47 (e). Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=4slQ6QSmlBEDzFEovLCuW2fDOv8b0fr6d%2FTw%2FoqOULMUOETL30q%2Fb9oDx%2BHhgqoHxLzgUUEpsguqEKUxCV79FRYfRo%2FUs6LSu%2B7pwGvd7HyHc9ZyCHyczrQGBpV7SagM

2011 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Czech Republic par. 58 (c) and (d) (2011) - 2295

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-czech-republic-par-58-c-and-d-2011

Food policy Tobacco control Czech Republic CRC Food marketing regulations Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS) Tobacco use

58. (c) Systematically collect information on the consumption of alcohol and tobacco products amongst children. 58. (d) Undertake measures necessary for the effective enforcement of the prohibition of the sale of such products to children; the Committee also recommends that the State party consider prohibiting the promotion of alcohol and tobacco products in media and/or information commonly accessed by children....

Text of the recommendation

58. (c) Systematically collect information on the consumption of alcohol and tobacco products amongst children.

58. (d) Undertake measures necessary for the effective enforcement of the prohibition of the sale of such products to children; the Committee also recommends that the State party consider prohibiting the promotion of alcohol and tobacco products in media and/or information commonly accessed by children.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, Concluding Observations: Czech Republic. CRC/C/CZE/CO/3-4 (2011). Par. 58 (c) and (d). Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsrpiCE%2Fy0jVxzg5%2BV8i7pht4H4a4pAWsJL3pa%2FvZCeSaVBbp1g77ZAaHTDQ9mJG8VIti46tzmjcvP%2FVoFNzfm%2F1WVG%2BKM%2Fced2V99WuxIcPh

2012 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Cyprus par. 41 (2012) - 2292

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-cyprus-par-41-2012

Food policy Tobacco control Cyrpus CRC Food marketing regulations Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS)

41. The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account the Committee’s general comment No. 4 (2003) on adolescents health and development in the context of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, systematically collect comprehensive information on the consumption of alcohol and tobacco among children, and take the necessary measures for the effective enforcement of the prohibition...

Text of the recommendation

41. The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account the Committee’s general comment No. 4 (2003) on adolescents health and development in the context of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, systematically collect comprehensive information on the consumption of alcohol and tobacco among children, and take the necessary measures for the effective enforcement of the prohibition of the sale of such products to children. The Committee also recommends that the State party consider prohibiting the advertising of alcohol and tobacco products through television, radio, publications, the Internet and other media commonly accessed by Children and/or adolescents.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the combined third and fourth periodic report of Cyprus, adopted by the Committee at its sixtieth session (29 May–15 June 2012), CRC/C/CYP/CO/3-4 (2012). Par. 41. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhst6tBMkpDydMOp%2FOldKYSCTxZEEXqMQuMgbGGs5UVhYQ%2Bnm3csYNe2lhLdZR9LbV25V329zXVaI1KT5pQZ3ERfE9o%2BVaQjmjPeADlmN852mR

2008 - Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Recommendation for Findland par. 28 (2008) - 2290

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-elimination-of-discrimination-against-women-recommendation-for-findland-par-28-2008

Other Health-related issues CEDAW Education and information

28. The Committee urges the State party to take the necessary measures to address the deteriorating mental health situation of young girls, to prevent and combat the abuse of alcohol and use of drugs, and to prevent girls’ suicide. It also recommends awareness-raising and educational campaigns, in particular through the media, targeted at adolescents girls. ...

Text of the recommendation

28. The Committee urges the State party to take the necessary measures to address the deteriorating mental health situation of young girls, to prevent and combat the abuse of alcohol and use of drugs, and to prevent girls’ suicide. It also recommends awareness-raising and educational campaigns, in particular through the media, targeted at adolescents girls.


Citation

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Draft concluding observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women: Finland, CEDAW/C/FIN/CO/6 (2008). Par. 28. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsjuNjw8cUF3pRrdCdanf79mWk1Z%2BT6HAIGYdnNA%2FFyuEHT8kaK0yhnND%2F722Eic4hnJcTr5bEhHBG1D9CMdl5bPP5RB0WnebDSzUjs%2Fux728

2014 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Finland Para. 12 (2014) - 2287

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-finland-para-12-2014

Other Health-related issues CESCR Education and information

12. The Committee recommends that the State party intensify its efforts to prevent and combat the persistent discrimination against persons with immigrant backgrounds and against persons belonging to national or ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities, including by adopting specific and targeted measures to address the problems faced by all minorities in having access to employment, housing, education and health care...

Text of the recommendation

12. The Committee recommends that the State party intensify its efforts to prevent and combat the persistent discrimination against persons with immigrant backgrounds and against persons belonging to national or ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities, including by adopting specific and targeted measures to address the problems faced by all minorities in having access to employment, housing, education and health care and by undertaking awareness-raising campaigns.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Concluding observations on the sixth periodic report of Finland, E/C.12/FIN/CO/6 (2014). Par. 12. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=4slQ6QSmlBEDzFEovLCuW8ONFvyIZeflVf46yTVq4vdYCo%2B6I8M8Sc2UMn8NF7eHC3J%2BPFRZNoBmWT3n58gXzkqESMSuyiSUQLWQEZnG3G%2FL6gW5qz5ypA7%2BNFvF9ErF

2005 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Denmark par. 41 (2005) - 2284

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-denmark-par-41-2005

Food policy Denmark CRC Food and nutrition security

41. The Committee recommends that the State party continue and strengthen its efforts to manage overweight and obesity among children and pay close attention to child and adolescents health, taking into account the Committee’s general comment No. 4 (2003) on adolescents health and development in the context of the Convention. In particular, the State party is urged to strengthen...

Text of the recommendation

41. The Committee recommends that the State party continue and strengthen its efforts to manage overweight and obesity among children and pay close attention to child and adolescents health, taking into account the Committee’s general comment No. 4 (2003) on adolescents health and development in the context of the Convention. In particular, the State party is urged to strengthen its efforts to prevent and combat obesity and to reduce and prevent malnutrition in Greenland. The Committee recommends that the State party continue to refine its policies on prenatal care in remote and rural areas to address the issue of high infant mortality.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, CONSIDERATION OF REPORTS SUBMITTED BY STATES PARTIESUNDER ARTICLE 44 OF THE CONVENTION, CRC/C/DNK/CO/3 (2005). Par. 41. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsgIK9tmnWXdxaU%2FedXEEMqLfzDnhYnjjr3Qw1YRT1vqJfbHoJgbilpBBdsz3fKSsq8SfxAiCIc9%2FMl1OTRPbXATUwTtktlbYNiVSmHtg89fB

2011 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Denmark par. 50 (2011) - 2281

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-denmark-par-50-2011

Food policy Denmark CRC Food and nutrition security

50. The Committee recommends that the State party strengthen its efforts to combat obesity among Children and/or adolescents, including by ensuring access to health advice and care, including in schools, to healthy foods, and to adequate opportunities for engaging in physical activity. In this respect, the Committee recommends that the State party engage the mass media and the food industry...

Text of the recommendation

50. The Committee recommends that the State party strengthen its efforts to combat obesity among Children and/or adolescents, including by ensuring access to health advice and care, including in schools, to healthy foods, and to adequate opportunities for engaging in physical activity. In this respect, the Committee recommends that the State party engage the mass media and the food industry to ensure their contribution to healthy lifestyles and consumption patterns by Children and/or adolescents. The Committee also recommends that the authorities in the territories of Greenland and the Faroe Islands expeditiously prepare and implement appropriate programmes and strategies for preventing and addressing unwanted pregnancies.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, CRC/C/DNK/CO/4 (2011). Par. 50. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsgIK9tmnWXdxaU%2FedXEEMqKcd7sYWkk4RGqc5EziTaY42M9Qt6ueJQVJx0U4PnPnsp8ZZcPT4vYYrqCWgciFVK5qy0jO4L5F8OAboc8tzv%2FW

2017 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Denmark par. 32 and 33 (2017) - 2278

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-denmark-par-32-and-33-2017

Food policy Tobacco control Denmark CRC Education and information Food and nutrition security

32. In view of the reports according to which the inhabitants of certain smaller settlements and towns in Greenland suffer from significant food shortages between January and May, which have a particularly negative impact on children from low-income families, the Committee recommends that the State party allocate adequate resources to ensure that all areas of Greenland have sufficient and healthy...

Text of the recommendation

32. In view of the reports according to which the inhabitants of certain smaller settlements and towns in Greenland suffer from significant food shortages between January and May, which have a particularly negative impact on children from low-income families, the Committee recommends that the State party allocate adequate resources to ensure that all areas of Greenland have sufficient and healthy food reserves and to provide adequate benefits to low-income families to ensure that they can provide their children with sufficient and healthy food. In this regard, the Committee also recommends that the State party develop policies to ensure that healthy food choices are available and affordable in Greenland, and strengthen awareness-raising campaigns to promote the benefits of healthy eating for children. 33. While noting with appreciation that alcohol consumption among children in mainland Denmark has decreased, the Committee recommends that the State party continue addressing the incidence of drug use by Children and/or adolescents, with a particular emphasis on the situation in Greenland, by, inter alia, providing Children and/or adolescents with accurate and objective information, as well as life skills education, on preventing substance abuse (including tobacco and alcohol), and develop accessible and youth-friendly drug dependence treatment and harm reduction services.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the fifth periodic report of Denmark, CRC/C/DNK/CO/5 (2017). Par. 32 and 33. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsgIK9tmnWXdxaU%2FedXEEMqJrk8yrwetruHAHlCuvk7lIb6C66JpZees7wvtcoJhlEgwEf7VfhCW5afo%2B60Ay5phC4Cg9ZPD46%2F3NL1yVPqT3

2014 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Croatia para. 47 (2014) - 2275

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-croatia-para-47-2014

Food policy Tobacco control Other Health-related issues Croatia CRC Food marketing regulations Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS)

47. State party strengthen measures to address alcohol and drug consumption and abuse, in general, as well as alcohol use by Children and/or adolescents, through education programmes and campaigns to promote healthy lifestyles, and ensure enforcement of regulations on the sale and advertising of alcohol and tobacco products to children. The Committee also recommends that the State party strengthen measures...

Text of the recommendation

47. State party strengthen measures to address alcohol and drug consumption and abuse, in general, as well as alcohol use by Children and/or adolescents, through education programmes and campaigns to promote healthy lifestyles, and ensure enforcement of regulations on the sale and advertising of alcohol and tobacco products to children. The Committee also recommends that the State party strengthen measures to raise awareness on sexual and reproductive health, with special attention to sexually transmitted infections, and ensure systematic health education.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the combined fifth and sixth periodic reports of Croatia, CRC/C/HRV/CO/3-4 (2014). Par. 47. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsp7zGar7lD0FuXla4BEx9U7ftQDq0TPw1CFHNLPEe8G%2FfFTZ010rcpvYIzR2qbB51Nlb19f1Z1nUbN1ZkNCIN89jPGKrfbBi%2BAXB7aQiE313

2022 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Croatia par. 35 (d) (2022) - 2272

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-croatia-par-35-d-2022

Tobacco control Other Health-related issues Croatia CRC Education and information

35. (d) Address the incidence of drug use by Children and/or adolescents by, inter alia, providing Children and/or adolescents with accurate and objective information and life skills education on preventing substance abuse – including of tobacco and alcohol – and develop accessible and youth-friendly addiction treatment;...

Text of the recommendation

35. (d) Address the incidence of drug use by Children and/or adolescents by, inter alia, providing Children and/or adolescents with accurate and objective information and life skills education on preventing substance abuse – including of tobacco and alcohol – and develop accessible and youth-friendly addiction treatment;

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the combined fifth and sixth periodic reports of Croatia, CRC/C/HRV/CO/5-6 (2022). Par. 35 (d). Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsp7zGar7lD0FuXla4BEx9U7RNJDXvowlo7%2F22sBKgyInpRWDYjeW0xLfC2evIWBQk6x%2FF4lWsrE5rMWP0Rb%2BWR3QzTXc8uxKk5%2BBXYvfThpd

2013 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Belarus, Para.25 (2013) - 2269

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-belarus-para-25-2013

Food policy Other Health-related issues Belarus CESCR

25. The Committee recommends that the State party effectively implement and enforce the existing legal and policy frameworks with regard to combating tobacco smoking, alcohol abuse and drug use and enhance its preventive measures, including but not limited to the promotion of healthy lifestyles and awareness-raising programmes about the serious health risks associated with such substance abuse. It also recommends...

Text of the recommendation

25. The Committee recommends that the State party effectively implement and enforce the existing legal and policy frameworks with regard to combating tobacco smoking, alcohol abuse and drug use and enhance its preventive measures, including but not limited to the promotion of healthy lifestyles and awareness-raising programmes about the serious health risks associated with such substance abuse. It also recommends that the State party apply a human rights-based approach to the treatment of persons abusing alcohol and drug users, and provide appropriate health care, psychological support services and rehabilitation to such persons, including effective drug dependence treatment such as opioid substitution therapy.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Concluding observations on the combined fourth to sixth periodic reports of Belarus, E/C.12/BLR/CO/4-6 (2013). Par. 25. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=4slQ6QSmlBEDzFEovLCuWzoufcs4rD6HOGEQguDH73ebwytTIqXJLJOJz4PD6B5lABS7ch8L%2FOb5RSFbdLA%2F%2B%2BSf%2FCn6kspnFTrnnrq%2FeMYP1wRUmM5wAkEA7BnQP%2F7c

2020 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Belarus par. 32 (d) and 34 (a) (2020) - 2266

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-belarus-par-32-d-and-34-a-2020

Food policy Tobacco control Other Health-related issues Belarus CRC Food marketing regulations Schools and meals programs Education and information

32. (d) Identify and effectively address the causes of child malnutrition, including obesity, underweight, diabetes and vitamin and iodine deficiency; develop and monitor policies and programmes on child food security and nutrition, including school meal programmes and programmes addressing infants and young children; and regulate the marketing of unhealthy foods to children. 34. (a) Strengthen its efforts to prevent and...

Text of the recommendation

32. (d) Identify and effectively address the causes of child malnutrition, including obesity, underweight, diabetes and vitamin and iodine deficiency; develop and monitor policies and programmes on child food security and nutrition, including school meal programmes and programmes addressing infants and young children; and regulate the marketing of unhealthy foods to children.

34. (a) Strengthen its efforts to prevent and address the incidence of alcohol and tobacco addiction, including by providing Children and/or adolescents with accurate and objective information and life skills education on preventing substance abuse, and develop specialized accessible and youth-friendly drug-dependence treatment and harm-reduction services;

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the combined fifth and sixth periodic reports of Belarus, CRC/C/BLR/CO/5-6 (2020). Par. 32 (B) and 34 (A). Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsng3QhcRVOo18YEahXg1g0FJuwmBoYaCZpwAR4rCCC4ZHA3LQ%2F3ORcdseLbECmStUlymRG5WkqL1goNtoTFYBuk5f76TGhWZ7rv5lxelLx00

2013 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Austria par. 17 (2013) - 2263

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-austria-par-17-2013

Food policy Austria CESCR Food and nutrition security

17. The Committee further recommends that the State party guarantee the right to adequate food for people living in poverty, as set out in its general comment No. 12 (1999) on the right to adequate food and the Voluntary Guidelines to Support the Progressive Realization of the Right to Adequate Food in the Context of National Food Security adopted by...

Text of the recommendation

17. The Committee further recommends that the State party guarantee the right to adequate food for people living in poverty, as set out in its general comment No. 12 (1999) on the right to adequate food and the Voluntary Guidelines to Support the Progressive Realization of the Right to Adequate Food in the Context of National Food Security adopted by the Food and Agriculture Organization.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Concluding observations on the fourth periodic reportof Austria, E/C.12/AUT/CO/4 (2013). Par. 17. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=4slQ6QSmlBEDzFEovLCuW9RFfyUl9z%2BWiZSaFYknZJM9f7mKRfwhsR3yHjSPykkHfXXRXhVFvpG8yoeqQBAReXlTOQtz7VRbSHegEFOcXYSMG2t7AULQ4z%2Bp86ic9mXc

2006 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Austria par. 30 (2006) - 2260

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-austria-par-30-2006

Tobacco control Other Health-related issues Austria CESCR Education and information

30. The Committee recommends that the State party educate young people about the risks of drug abuse and of tobacco and alcohol consumption, to intensify its campaigns against such abuse and excessive consumption, as well as its information campaigns for children, parents, teachers and the general public, and to ensure that adequate counselling services are available to all persons affected...

Text of the recommendation

30. The Committee recommends that the State party educate young people about the risks of drug abuse and of tobacco and alcohol consumption, to intensify its campaigns against such abuse and excessive consumption, as well as its information campaigns for children, parents, teachers and the general public, and to ensure that adequate counselling services are available to all persons affected by drug, tobacco or alcohol addiction.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, CONSIDERATION OF REPORTS SUBMITTED BY STATES PARTIESUNDER ARTICLES 16 AND 17 OF THE COVENANT, E/C.12/AUT/CO/3 (2006). Par. 30. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=4slQ6QSmlBEDzFEovLCuW9RFfyUl9z%2BWiZSaFYknZJN96GgLe%2FMpOfCqU32imDmTyMGOsvR943E9SMGX9dFT9XaL%2BPCEISLzNMGT5eRVZWmqPtMrG9%2Bn0kFDsW3rzFhj

2012 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Austria par. 51 (2012) - 2257

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-austria-par-51-2012

Food policy Tobacco control Austria CRC Education and information

51. The Committee recommends that the State party increase its efforts to address the needs of children from dysfunctional families and take measures to minimize the psychological effect of such family situations, and strengthen care and rehabilitation programmes for children suffering from alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illicit substance addiction, depression and obesity. With reference to its general comment No....

Text of the recommendation

51. The Committee recommends that the State party increase its efforts to address the needs of children from dysfunctional families and take measures to minimize the psychological effect of such family situations, and strengthen care and rehabilitation programmes for children suffering from alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illicit substance addiction, depression and obesity. With reference to its general comment No. 4 (2003), the Committee recommends that the State party develop specialized and youth-friendly drug-dependence treatment and harm reduction services for children.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the combined third and fourth periodic report of Austria, adopted by the Committee at its sixty-first session (17 September – 5 October 2012), CRC/C/AUT/CO/3-4 (2012). Par. 51. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsvkrHee8tArE5cEO48WRQ1h00ljH5ZHteHxrVM46rpraZ7ndl8XubFOR97nr3JMbpBzVfWTZ9k84Eo09PjCCLg1mEIzcd16khois6p90u%2FG7

2012 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Austria par. 32 (a) (2020) - 2254

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-austria-par-32-a-2020

Food policy Austria CRC Nutritional surveillance

32. (a) Strengthen measures to address obesity in children and actions to promote a healthy lifestyle, including physical activity. ...

Text of the recommendation

32. (a) Strengthen measures to address obesity in children and actions to promote a healthy lifestyle, including physical activity.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the combined fifth and sixth periodic reports of Austria, CRC/C/AUT/CO/5-6 (2020). Par. 32(a). Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsvkrHee8tArE5cEO48WRQ1gVMWjPAohzJdodkn0%2BhzkT3o0ypXMuZuHcJ2JrCvBAfWT2gxG4CnKP3OYI7GQNgUlNTid242NuiqJ%2BoqBOlISF

2012 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Madagascar par. 22 (2012) - 2252

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-madagascar-par-22-2012

Food policy Tobacco control Madagascar CRC Industry interference

22. The Committee recommends that the State party establish and implement regulations to ensure that the business sector complies with international and domestic standards on corporate social responsibility, in line with the United Nations Business and Human Rights Framework , which outlines the duty of States to protect against human rights abuses by businesses; corporate responsibility to respect human rights;...

Text of the recommendation

22. The Committee recommends that the State party establish and implement regulations to ensure that the business sector complies with international and domestic standards on corporate social responsibility, in line with the United Nations Business and Human Rights Framework , which outlines the duty of States to protect against human rights abuses by businesses; corporate responsibility to respect human rights; and the need for more effective access to remedies when violations occur. In doing so, the Committee encourages the State party to focus on the protection of the rights of the child and to investigate and provide remedies in reported cases of abuse by corporations and their executives. The Committee encourages the State party to consider the Human Rights Council r esolution 8/7 welcoming the report identifying the ¨Protect, Respect and Remedy¨ framework and r esolution 14/7 requesting the new Working Group to follow-up on this matter , both of which note that the rights of the child be included when exploring the relationship between business and human rights.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, CRC/C/MDG/CO/3-4 (2012). Par. 22. Available at: https://undocs.org/Home/Mobile?FinalSymbol=CRC%2FC%2FMDG%2FCO%2F3-4&Language=E&DeviceType=Desktop&LangRequested=False

2012 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Madagascar par. 4 (2012) - 2249

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-madagascar-par-4-2012

Tobacco control Madagascar CRC FCTC ratification

4. (i)The Committee also welcomes the ratification of or accession to: (i)World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, in 2004....

Text of the recommendation

4. (i)The Committee also welcomes the ratification of or accession to: (i)World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, in 2004.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, CRC/C/MDG/CO/3-4 (2012). Par. 4 (i). Available at: https://undocs.org/Home/Mobile?FinalSymbol=CRC%2FC%2FMDG%2FCO%2F3-4&Language=E&DeviceType=Desktop&LangRequested=False

2016 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Kenya par. 50 (e) (2016) - 2247

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-kenya-par-50-e-2016

Other Health-related issues Kenya CRC Education and information

50. With reference to the Committee’s general comment No. 4 (2003) on adolescents health and development , the Committee recommends that the State party: (e) Implement education programmes and campaigns to promote healthy lifestyles and to prevent drug and substance abuse by children, monitor the use of drugs and other substance s at schools with the participation of children ,...

Text of the recommendation

50. With reference to the Committee’s general comment No. 4 (2003) on adolescents health and development , the Committee recommends that the State party: (e) Implement education programmes and campaigns to promote healthy lifestyles and to prevent drug and substance abuse by children, monitor the use of drugs and other substance s at schools with the participation of children , and develop accessible and youth-friendly drug and substance dependence treatment and harm reduction services as well as life skills education.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the combined third to fifth periodic reports of Kenya, CRC/C/KEN/CO/3-5 (2016). Par. 50 (e). Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2fPPRiCAqhKb7yhsiVXw3pS%2bUXH3S2uOz56XaHOlmQlXek9CSfHt61Gk52XYLAe1vtQx5jEtqe8Sh%2fkZmyOARonOIQzp0aD8yhV4yGRJhWSai5hxIps8r1I3Zk4

2016 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Kenya par. 20 (a), (b) and (c) (2016) - 2245

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-kenya-par-20-a-b-and-c-2016

Food policy Tobacco control Other Health-related issues Kenya CRC Industry interference Environment and health

20. With reference to the Committee’s general comment No. 16 (2013) on State obligations regarding the impact of the business sector on children’s rights, the Committee recommends that the State party: (a) Establish a clear regulatory framework for business enterprises operating in the State party to ensure that their activities do not negatively affect child rights or breach environmental, health...

Text of the recommendation

20. With reference to the Committee’s general comment No. 16 (2013) on State obligations regarding the impact of the business sector on children’s rights, the Committee recommends that the State party: (a) Establish a clear regulatory framework for business enterprises operating in the State party to ensure that their activities do not negatively affect child rights or breach environmental, health or labor standards, especially those relating to children; (b) Monitor the compliance of business enterprises with such regulations, as well as with international and national environmental, health and labor standards, and sanction appropriately and provide remedies when violations occur; (c) Be guided by the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (see A/HRC/17/31, annex).

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the combined third to fifth periodic reports of Kenya, CRC/C/KEN/CO/3-5 (2016). Par. 20. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2fPPRiCAqhKb7yhsiVXw3pS%2bUXH3S2uOz56XaHOlmQlXek9CSfHt61Gk52XYLAe1vtQx5jEtqe8Sh%2fkZmyOARonOIQzp0aD8yhV4yGRJhWSai5hxIps8r1I3Zk4

2001 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Cabo Verde par. 51 and par. 52 (b) (2001) - 2242

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-cabo-verde-par-51-and-par-52-b-2001

Tobacco control Cabo Verde CRC Tobacco use

51. The Committee is concerned that adolescents face numerous risks, including from life on the street, sexual exploitation, mistreatment, alcohol, tobacco and drug abuse and delinquency, and that there are no statistics available to indicate the number of adolescents exposed to these dangers. The Committee is concerned, in addition, at the high rates of teenage pregnancy, the incidence of sexually...

Text of the recommendation

51. The Committee is concerned that adolescents face numerous risks, including from life on the street, sexual exploitation, mistreatment, alcohol, tobacco and drug abuse and delinquency, and that there are no statistics available to indicate the number of adolescents exposed to these dangers. The Committee is concerned, in addition, at the high rates of teenage pregnancy, the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases, the potential spread of HIV/AIDS and the incidence of unsafe abortions occurring outside the health service structure.

52. The Committee recommends that the State party: (b) Give special attention to sexual exploitation, mistreatment, and alcohol, tobacco and substance abuse.

Citation

Commitee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child: Cape Verde, CRC/C/15/Add.168 (2001). Par. 51 and par 52 (b). Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2FC%2F15%2FAdd.168&Lang=en

2019 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Cabo Verde par. 64 (2019) - 2240

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-cabo-verde-par-64-2019

Other Health-related issues Cabo Verde CRC Education and information

64. The Committee welcomes the integration of adolescents health in the National Health Policy, and the creation of sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents in 2008. The Committee is, however, concerned about the high number of pregnancies among girls and the discrepancy in access to sexual and reproductive health services between urban and rural areas. The Committee notes the...

Text of the recommendation

64. The Committee welcomes the integration of adolescents health in the National Health Policy, and the creation of sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents in 2008. The Committee is, however, concerned about the high number of pregnancies among girls and the discrepancy in access to sexual and reproductive health services between urban and rural areas. The Committee notes the training, education and awareness-raising activities to prevent the use of harmful drugs by children but remains concerned about their use by adolescents, with some starting to use drugs before the age of 15.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the second periodic report of Cabo Verde, CRC/C/CPV/CO/2, (2019). Par. 64. Available at: http://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2fPPRiCAqhKb7yhslnBTpuuAw%2f%2b74cgBUuvp98ixU1BnIBw2XvKuz%2boZhvpu3frlJYR3qLMOOAJLG%2bHbp8qvThVvhusU7wjqqVZDtJH5qFG7JaN5wIum7H13UJN

2019 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Cabo Verde par. 82 (2019) - 2238

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-cabo-verde-par-82-2019

Tobacco control Cabo Verde CRC Smoke and emissions’ free environments (SFE)

82. Recalling its general comment No. 17 (2013) on the right of the child to rest, leisure, play, recreational activities, cultural life and the arts, the Committee recommends that the State party take measures to provide children with safe, accessible, inclusive and smoke-free spaces for play and socialization at the community level....

Text of the recommendation

82. Recalling its general comment No. 17 (2013) on the right of the child to rest, leisure, play, recreational activities, cultural life and the arts, the Committee recommends that the State party take measures to provide children with safe, accessible, inclusive and smoke-free spaces for play and socialization at the community level.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the second periodic report of Cabo Verde, CRC/C/CPV/CO/2, (2019). Par. 82. Available at: http://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2fPPRiCAqhKb7yhslnBTpuuAw%2f%2b74cgBUuvp98ixU1BnIBw2XvKuz%2boZhvpu3frlJYR3qLMOOAJLG%2bHbp8qvThVvhusU7wjqqVZDtJH5qFG7JaN5wIum7H13UJN

2000 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for South Africa par. 31 (2000) - 2236

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-south-africa-par-31-2000

Food policy Other Health-related issues South Africa CRC Education and information Tobacco use

31. The Committee expresses concern regarding the limited availability of programmes and services and the lack of adequate data in the area of adolescents health, including teenage pregnancies; abortions; drugs and substance abuse, including alcohol and tobacco use; accidents; violence; and suicide. The Committee expresses its concern at the lack of statistical data on the situation of children with mental...

Text of the recommendation

31. The Committee expresses concern regarding the limited availability of programmes and services and the lack of adequate data in the area of adolescents health, including teenage pregnancies; abortions; drugs and substance abuse, including alcohol and tobacco use; accidents; violence; and suicide. The Committee expresses its concern at the lack of statistical data on the situation of children with mental health concerns as well as the insufficient policies and programmes for these children. The Committee notes that while the State party has taken a tough anti-smoking stance with the introduction of strong legislation in 1991 and amendments in 1999 to control the supply of tobacco, many under-age smokers are still able to buy tobacco products. While the Committee notes that the State party has launched a Partnership Against HIV/AIDS Programme (1998) which aims, inter alia, to establish counselling and treatment centres for people living with HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), it remains concerned about the high and increasing incidence of HIV/AIDS and STDs. The Committee recommends that the State party take effective measures to ensure that legislation is fully implemented and enforced, particularly as regards the use of tobacco products. The Committee recommends that the State party reinforce adolescents health policies, particularly with respect to accidents, suicide, violence and substance abuse. It is also recommended that the State party undertake a study to assess the situation of children with mental health concerns and introduce programmes to guarantee adequate care and protection for them. Additionally, it is recommended that the State party undertake further measures, including the allocation of adequate human and financial resources, to develop youth-friendly counselling, care and rehabilitation facilities for adolescents that would be accessible, without parental consent where this is in the best interests of the child. The Committee recommends the reinforcement of training programmes for youth on reproductive health, HIV/AIDS and STDs. These programmes should be based not only on gaining knowledge, but also on the acquisition of competencies and life skills that are essential to the development of youth. The Committee further recommends the full participation of youth in the development of strategies to respond to HIV/AIDS at the national, regional and local levels. Particular emphasis should be placed on changing public attitudes toward HIV/AIDS and identifying strategies to address the continued discrimination experienced by Children and/or adolescents infected with HIV.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, CONSIDERATION OF REPORTS SUBMITTED BY STATES PARTIES UNDER ARTICLE 44 OF THE CONVENTION, CRC/C/15/Add.122, (2000). Par. 31. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2f15%2fAdd.122&Lang=en

2000 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for South Africa par. 29 (2000) - 2231

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-south-africa-par-29-2000

Food policy South Africa CRC Education and information Food and nutrition security Access to water

29. The Committee notes the State party’s recent initiatives to improve the general situation of health and health services for children, including the introduction of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI) initiative and the provision of free health care to children under the age of six years and to pregnant and lactating women. However, the Committee remains concerned that...

Text of the recommendation

29. The Committee notes the State party’s recent initiatives to improve the general situation of health and health services for children, including the introduction of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI) initiative and the provision of free health care to children under the age of six years and to pregnant and lactating women. However, the Committee remains concerned that health services in the districts and local areas continue to lack adequate resources (both financial and human). The Committee is also concerned that the survival and development of children within the State party continue to be threatened by early childhood diseases such as acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea. The Committee is also concerned about the high incidence of child and infant mortality as well as maternal mortality; the high rate of malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency and stunting; the poor situation of sanitation; and insufficient access to safe drinking water, especially in rural communities. The Committee recommends that the State party reinforce its efforts to allocate appropriate resources and develop comprehensive policies and programmes to improve the health situation of children, particularly in rural areas. In this context, the Committee recommends that the State party facilitate greater access to primary health services; reduce the incidence of maternal, child and infant mortality; prevent and combat malnutrition, especially in vulnerable and disadvantaged groups of children; and increase access to safe drinking water and sanitation. Additionally, the Committee encourages the State party to continue its technical cooperation with respect to the IMIC initiative and, where necessary, to pursue additional avenues for cooperation and assistance for child health improvement with, inter alia, WHO and UNICEF.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, CONSIDERATION OF REPORTS SUBMITTED BY STATES PARTIES UNDER ARTICLE 44 OF THE CONVENTION, CRC/C/15/Add.122, (2000). Par. 29. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2f15%2fAdd.122&Lang=en

2011 - Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Recommendation for South Africa par. 38 (2011) - 2228

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-elimination-of-discrimination-against-women-recommendation-for-south-africa-par-38-2011

Food policy South Africa CEDAW Access to water

38. The Committee calls on the State party to take the necessary measures to increase and strengthen the participation of women in designing and implementing local development plans, and to pay special attention to the needs of rural women, in particular women heads of household, by ensuring that they participate in decision-making processes and have improved access to health, education,...

Text of the recommendation

38. The Committee calls on the State party to take the necessary measures to increase and strengthen the participation of women in designing and implementing local development plans, and to pay special attention to the needs of rural women, in particular women heads of household, by ensuring that they participate in decision-making processes and have improved access to health, education, clean water and sanitation services, fertile land and income-generation projects. The Committee also urges the State party to eliminate all forms of discrimination with respect to ownership, co-sharing and inheritance of land. It further urges the introduction of measures to address negative customs and traditional practices, especially in rural areas, which affect full enjoyment of the right to property by women.

Citation

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Concluding observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, CEDAW/C/ZAF/CO/4, (2011). Par. 38. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CEDAW%2fC%2fZAF%2fCO%2f4&Lang=en

2016 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for South Africa par. 53 (a), (b), (c) and (d) and par. 54 (a), (b), (c) and (d) (2016) - 2223

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-south-africa-par-53-a-b-c-and-d-and-par-54-a-b-c-and-d-2016

Food policy South Africa CRC Food marketing regulations Nutritional surveillance Breastfeeding

53. The Committee welcomes the adoption of the Roadmap for Nutrition in South Africa 2013-2017, as well as the efforts made to facilitate breastfeeding. Nevertheless, the Committee is concerned at: (a)Child malnutrition, including undernutrition, micronutrient deficiencies and overnutrition, as key contributing factors for child mortality and child morbidity; (b)Child food insecurity caused by, among other things, poverty, food price increases,...

Text of the recommendation

53. The Committee welcomes the adoption of the Roadmap for Nutrition in South Africa 2013-2017, as well as the efforts made to facilitate breastfeeding. Nevertheless, the Committee is concerned at: (a)Child malnutrition, including undernutrition, micronutrient deficiencies and overnutrition, as key contributing factors for child mortality and child morbidity; (b)Child food insecurity caused by, among other things, poverty, food price increases, demographic changes, energy costs and climate change; (c)The persistently low rate of exclusive breastfeeding of infants aged up to 6 months; (d)The inadequate nutritiousness of food provided in the school meal programme; (e)The increase in the prevalence of obesity among children and the aggressive marketing of unhealthy food targeting children. 54. Taking note of target 2.2 of the Sustainable Development Goals on ending all forms of malnutrition, the Committee recommends that the State party: (a) Develop and implement a framework law on the right to food, as envisaged in the National Policy on Food and Nutrition Security for the Republic of South Africa, of 2014, paying due attention to the eradication of child food insecurity and malnutrition; (b) Take all measures necessary to promote exclusive breastfeeding for at least six months, with appropriate guidance and support for breastfeeding by HIV-infected mothers, and to regulate the promotion of breast milk substitutes; (c) Strengthen the monitoring of the National School Nutrition Programme, including of the frequency, quality and nutritional value of the food supplied through the programme; (d) Regulate the marketing of unhealthy foods to children in order to address the rise in child obesity, and introduce strategies that enable poor households to access healthy food; (e) Seek technical assistance from UNICEF and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in this regard.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the second periodic report of South Africa, CRC/C/ZAF/CO/2, (2016). Par. 53 and 54. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fZAF%2fCO%2f2&Lang=en

2018 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for South Africa par. 56 and par. 57 (a), (b), (c) and (d) (2018) - 2220

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-south-africa-par-56-and-par-57-a-b-c-and-d-2018

Food policy South Africa CESCR Fiscal measures Nutritional surveillance

56. The Committee is concerned at the high incidence of food insecurity and malnutrition in the State party, particularly among children. Given the fact that, in the State party, 12 per cent of children lived in hunger in 2017 and 27 per cent of children suffered from stunting in 2016, the Committee is particularly concerned that the child support grant...

Text of the recommendation

56. The Committee is concerned at the high incidence of food insecurity and malnutrition in the State party, particularly among children. Given the fact that, in the State party, 12 per cent of children lived in hunger in 2017 and 27 per cent of children suffered from stunting in 2016, the Committee is particularly concerned that the child support grant (at 400 rand per month) has been set far below the food poverty line and that an estimated 18 per cent of eligible children do not benefit from the grant, owing to a lack of documentation. It is further concerned at the lack of a framework law to ensurethe right to food (arts. 9 and 11).

57. The Committee recommends that the State party: (a) Increase the child support grant at least up to the level of the food poverty line; (b) Ensure that all eligible children benefit from the grant; (c) Expedite the adoption of the Social Assistance Amendment Bill of 2018 to increase the level of child support grants for orphaned and abandoned children living with relatives, for which it has already earmarked funds; (d) Adopt framework legislation protecting the right to adequate food and nutrition, and develop a national food and nutrition security strategy, taking into account the Voluntary Guidelines to Support the Progressive Realization of the Right to Adequate Food in the Context of National Food Security of 2004 and the Committee ’ s general comment No. 12 (1999) on the right to adequate food.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Concluding observations on the initial report of South Africa, E/C.12/ZAF/CO/1, (2018). Par. 56 and 57. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E%2fC.12%2fZAF%2fCO%2f1&Lang=en

2015 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Uruguay, par.51 and par 52 (2015) - 2218

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-uruguay-par-51-and-par-52-2015

Food policy Uruguay CRC Education and information Tobacco use

51. The Committee is concerned that, while tobacco, alcohol and drug consumption are widespread among adolescents, programmes and services for those affected by substance abuse remain limited. 52. The Committee recommends that the State party address the prevalence of substance abuse, including tobacco and alcohol abuse, provide children and adolescents with objective information in this respect, and develop accessible and youth-friendly...

Text of the recommendation

51. The Committee is concerned that, while tobacco, alcohol and drug consumption are widespread among adolescents, programmes and services for those affected by substance abuse remain limited.

52. The Committee recommends that the State party address the prevalence of substance abuse, including tobacco and alcohol abuse, provide children and adolescents with objective information in this respect, and develop accessible and youth-friendly drug dependence treatment and harm reduction services.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the combined third to fifth periodic reports of Uruguay, CRC/C/URY/CO/3-5 (2015). Par.51 and par 52. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fURY%2fCO%2f3-5&Lang=en

2017 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Uruguay par. 40 and 41 (2017) - 2215

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-uruguay-par-40-and-41-2017

Food policy Uruguay CESCR Fiscal measures Food marketing regulations Education and information

40. The Committee is concerned about the high rates of obesity in the State party and the lack of comprehensive, effective measures for addressing this problem (arts. 11 and 12). 41. The Committee recommends that the State party redouble its efforts to design a comprehensive national strategy for upholding the right to adequate food, along with programmes for promoting healthier diets....

Text of the recommendation

40. The Committee is concerned about the high rates of obesity in the State party and the lack of comprehensive, effective measures for addressing this problem (arts. 11 and 12).

41. The Committee recommends that the State party redouble its efforts to design a comprehensive national strategy for upholding the right to adequate food, along with programmes for promoting healthier diets. It also recommends that this strategy cover matters relating to marketing, land use planning, education and fiscal policy and that all stakeholders take part in its development. The Committee refers the State party to its general comment No. 12 (1999) on the right to adequate food and to the Voluntary Guidelines to Support the Progressive Realization of the Right to Adequate Food in the Context of National Food Security adopted by the Council of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Concluding observations on the fifth periodic report of Uruguay, E/C.12/URY/CO/5, (2017). Par. 40; 41. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E%2fC.12%2fURY%2fCO%2f5&Lang=en

2007 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Uruguay Par. 64(b) (2007) - 2212

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-uruguay-par-64b-2007

Food policy Uruguay CRC Food and nutrition security

64. The Committee recommends that the State party: (b) Provide children living or working on the street with adequate nutrition, housing, necessary health-care and educational opportunities, as well as recovery and social reintegration services, while taking into account gender aspects and the views of the children in accordance with article 12....

Text of the recommendation

64. The Committee recommends that the State party: (b) Provide children living or working on the street with adequate nutrition, housing, necessary health-care and educational opportunities, as well as recovery and social reintegration services, while taking into account gender aspects and the views of the children in accordance with article 12.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, CRC/C/URY/CO/2, (2007). Par. 64 (b). Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fURY%2fCO%2f2&Lang=en

2015 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Uruguay par. 45 and 46 (2015) - 2209

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-uruguay-par-45-and-46-2015

Food policy Uruguay CRC Food and nutrition security

45. The Committee welcomes the State party’s efforts to improve the coverage of the National System of Health and welcomes the adoption of the National Programme on Rural Health. However, the Committee is concerned about the large number of children suffering from nutritional disorders, such as chronic malnutrition, anaemia and obesity. 46. In the light of its general comment No. ...

Text of the recommendation

45. The Committee welcomes the State party’s efforts to improve the coverage of the National System of Health and welcomes the adoption of the National Programme on Rural Health. However, the Committee is concerned about the large number of children suffering from nutritional disorders, such as chronic malnutrition, anaemia and obesity.

46. In the light of its general comment No. 15 (2013) on the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health, the Committee recommends that the State party strengthen its efforts to ensure access to high- quality health services by all children, particularly children living in the most disadvantaged and remote areas of the country, and encourages the State party to develop policies and programmes to address chronic malnutrition and anaemia.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the combined third to fifth periodic reports of Uruguay, CRC/C/URY/CO/3-5, (2015). Par. 45-46. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fURY%2fCO%2f3-5&Lang=en

2006 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Peru par. 55 (2006) - 2207

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-peru-par-55-2006

Tobacco control Peru CRC Tobacco use

55. The Committee recommends that the State party provide adequate access to mental health services to all children and take all necessary measures to fight drug, alcohol and tobacco addictions including, inter alia, by providing specific rehabilitation services....

Text of the recommendation

55. The Committee recommends that the State party provide adequate access to mental health services to all children and take all necessary measures to fight drug, alcohol and tobacco addictions including, inter alia, by providing specific rehabilitation services.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of reports submitted by states parties under article 44 of the convention, Concluding observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child: Peru, CRC/C/PER/CO/3, (2006). Par. 55. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsndLtGe5EHJJCjWfHgz50miYzsJc%2FpBS7s7bEaQl4UhQgtHQMAIUtrXwbfqguGgALtrB1%2BqF%2FI0FZf7Watci%2B4%2BpnNinLNngSeiyqRNRB0lC

2012 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Peru par. 18 (2012) - 2205

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-peru-par-18-2012

Food policy Peru CESCR Food and nutrition security

18. The Committee is concerned that a significant number of children still suffer from malnutrition, in particular those living in rural and remote areas (art.11). The Committee recommends that the State party intensify its efforts to combat and prevent malnutrition amongst children, in particular those living in rural and remote areas....

Text of the recommendation

18. The Committee is concerned that a significant number of children still suffer from malnutrition, in particular those living in rural and remote areas (art.11).

The Committee recommends that the State party intensify its efforts to combat and prevent malnutrition amongst children, in particular those living in rural and remote areas.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under articles 16 and 17 of the Covenant, E/C.12/PER/CO/2-4, (2012). Par. 18. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E%2fC.12%2fPER%2fCO%2f2-4&Lang=en

2012 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Peru par. 16 (2012) - 2202

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-peru-par-16-2012

Food policy Peru CESCR Food and nutrition security

16. The Committee is concerned about the situation of street children in the State party, as well as their high numbers (art.10). The Committee recommends that the State party address the situation and the high number of street children, with the aim of protecting these children and preventing and reducing this phenomenon. The Committee also recommends that these efforts focus on...

Text of the recommendation

16. The Committee is concerned about the situation of street children in the State party, as well as their high numbers (art.10).

The Committee recommends that the State party address the situation and the high number of street children, with the aim of protecting these children and preventing and reducing this phenomenon. The Committee also recommends that these efforts focus on recovery and social reintegration services, as well as on ensuring adequate nutrition, housing, health care and educational opportunities.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under articles 16 and 17 of the Covenant, E/C.12/PER/CO/2-4, (2012). Par. 16. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E%2fC.12%2fPER%2fCO%2f2-4&Lang=en

2000 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Peru par. 24 (2000) - 2199

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-peru-par-24-2000

Food policy Peru CRC Food and nutrition security

24..The Committee recommends that the State party continue taking effective measures to ensure access to basic health care and services for all children. More concerted efforts need to be taken to guarantee equal access to health care and to combat malnutrition, with special emphasis on children belonging to indigenous groups and children living in rural and remote areas....

Text of the recommendation

24..The Committee recommends that the State party continue taking effective measures to ensure access to basic health care and services for all children. More concerted efforts need to be taken to guarantee equal access to health care and to combat malnutrition, with special emphasis on children belonging to indigenous groups and children living in rural and remote areas.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties under Article 44 of the Convention, CRC/C/15/Add.120, (2000). Par. 24. Basic Health and welfare, under the article 24. "Right to health and access to health services". Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2f15%2fAdd.120&Lang=en

2006 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Peru par. 66 (a) (2006) - 2197

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-peru-par-66-a-2006

Food policy Peru CRC Food and nutrition security

66. The Committee recommends that the State party: (a) Provide street children, in consultation with them, with recovery and social reintegration services as well as with adequate nutrition, housing, necessary health care and educational opportunities;...

Text of the recommendation

66. The Committee recommends that the State party: (a) Provide street children, in consultation with them, with recovery and social reintegration services as well as with adequate nutrition, housing, necessary health care and educational opportunities;

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties under Article 44 of the Convention, CRC/C/PER/CO/3, (2006). Par. 66. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fPER%2fCO%2f3&Lang=en

2006 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Peru par. 47 (a) (2006) - 2194

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-peru-par-47-a-2006

Food policy Other Health-related issues Peru CRC Food and nutrition security

47. The Committee recommends that the State party: (a) Ensure basic health care and services to all children throughout the country and continue to address the problem of malnutrition, with special emphasis on rural and remote areas;...

Text of the recommendation

47. The Committee recommends that the State party: (a) Ensure basic health care and services to all children throughout the country and continue to address the problem of malnutrition, with special emphasis on rural and remote areas;

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties under Article 44 of the Convention, CRC/C/PER/CO/3, (2006). Par. 47 (a). Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fPER%2fCO%2f3&Lang=en

2016 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Peru par. 24 (b) (2016) - 2192

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-peru-par-24-b-2016

Food policy Tobacco control Peru CRC Industry interference

24. In the light of its general comment s No. 16 (2013) on State obligations regarding the impact of the business sector on children’s rights and No. 11 (2009) on indigenous children and their rights under the Convention , the Committee recommends that the State party: (b) Require all companies to undertake assessments, consultations, and full public disclosure of the...

Text of the recommendation

24. In the light of its general comment s No. 16 (2013) on State obligations regarding the impact of the business sector on children’s rights and No. 11 (2009) on indigenous children and their rights under the Convention , the Committee recommends that the State party: (b) Require all companies to undertake assessments, consultations, and full public disclosure of the environmental, health-related and human rights impacts of their business activities and their plans to address such impacts;

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the combined fourth and fifth periodic reports of Peru, CRC/C/PER/CO/4-5, (2016). Par. 24 (b). Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fPER%2fCO%2f4-5&Lang=en

2016 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Peru par. 70(d) (2016) - 2190

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-peru-par-70d-2016

Food policy Peru CRC Food and nutrition security

70. In the light of its general comment No. 10 (2007) on children’s rights in juvenile justice, the Committee urges the State party to bring its juvenile justice system fully into line with the Convention and other relevant standards. In particular, the State party should: (d) In cases where detention is unavoidable, ensure that detention conditions are compliant with international...

Text of the recommendation

70. In the light of its general comment No. 10 (2007) on children’s rights in juvenile justice, the Committee urges the State party to bring its juvenile justice system fully into line with the Convention and other relevant standards. In particular, the State party should: (d) In cases where detention is unavoidable, ensure that detention conditions are compliant with international standards, including with regard to protection from violence, with adequate accommodation and access to food, education, health services and independent, child-sensitive complaints mechanisms;

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the combined fourth and fifth periodic reports of Peru, CRC/C/PER/CO/4-5, (2016). Par. 70 (d). Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fPER%2fCO%2f4-5&Lang=en

2016 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Peru par. 68 (b) (2016) - 2188

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-peru-par-68-b-2016

Food policy Peru CRC Food and nutrition security

68. The Committee recommends that the State party: (b) Adopt a comprehensive child-protection-based approach to dealing with children in street situations , focusing on ensuring adequate assistance for recovery and reintegration, nutrition, housing, health care and educational opportunities;...

Text of the recommendation

68. The Committee recommends that the State party: (b) Adopt a comprehensive child-protection-based approach to dealing with children in street situations , focusing on ensuring adequate assistance for recovery and reintegration, nutrition, housing, health care and educational opportunities;

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the combined fourth and fifth periodic reports of Peru, CRC/C/PER/CO/4-5, (2016). Par. 68 (b). Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fPER%2fCO%2f4-5&Lang=en

2016 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Peru par. 54 (a) (2016) - 2185

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-peru-par-54-a-2016

Food policy Peru CRC Food and nutrition security

54. The Committee draws the State party’s attention to its general comment No. 15 (2013) on the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health, and recommends that the State party: (a) Continue to strengthen its efforts to address child mortality and malnutrition, focusing primarily on children living in poverty, children living in rural...

Text of the recommendation

54. The Committee draws the State party’s attention to its general comment No. 15 (2013) on the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health, and recommends that the State party: (a) Continue to strengthen its efforts to address child mortality and malnutrition, focusing primarily on children living in poverty, children living in rural and remote areas and indigenous children. In this context, the State party should consider the t echnical guidance on the application of a human rights-based approach to the implementation of policies and programmes to reduce and eliminate preventable mortality and morbidity of children under 5 years of age (A/HRC/27/31);

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the combined fourth and fifth periodic reports of Peru, CRC/C/PER/CO/4-5, (2016). Par. 54 (a). Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fPER%2fCO%2f4-5&Lang=en

2015 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Mexico par. 50 (d) (2015) - 2183

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-mexico-par-50-d-2015

Tobacco control Mexico CRC Education and information Tobacco use

50. Referring to its general comments No. 4 (2003) on adolescents health and No. 15 (2013) on the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health, the Committee recommends that the State party: (d) Evaluate the consumption patterns of drugs by adolescents and strengthen the existing programmes aimed at preventing drug use and assisting...

Text of the recommendation

50. Referring to its general comments No. 4 (2003) on adolescents health and No. 15 (2013) on the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health, the Committee recommends that the State party: (d) Evaluate the consumption patterns of drugs by adolescents and strengthen the existing programmes aimed at preventing drug use and assisting children who use drugs. Those programmes should provide children, in particular in schools, with accurate and objective information as well as life skills education on preventing substance abuse — including tobacco and alcohol — and develop accessible and youth-friendly drug dependence treatment and harm reduction services;

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child. CConcluding observations on the combined fourth and fifth

periodic reports of Mexico, CRC/C/MEX/CO/4-5, (2015). Par. 50 (d). Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fMEX%2fCO%2f4-5&Lang=en

2018 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Mexico par. 11 (2018) - 2181

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-mexico-par-11-2018

Food policy Tobacco control Mexico CESCR Industry interference

11. The Committee recommends that the State party step up its efforts to ensure the prompt adoption of the National Action Plan on Business and Human Rights and to see to it that all relevant stakeholders participate in the processes of developing and implementing the Plan. In addition, it encourages the State party to adopt appropriate legislative and administrative measures...

Text of the recommendation

11. The Committee recommends that the State party step up its efforts to ensure the prompt adoption of the National Action Plan on Business and Human Rights and to see to it that all relevant stakeholders participate in the processes of developing and implementing the Plan. In addition, it encourages the State party to adopt appropriate legislative and administrative measures to ensure that companies operating in the State party exercise due diligence in human rights matters in order to prevent their activities from having a negative impact on the exercise of economic, social and cultural rights. The Committee encourages the State party to consider implementing the recommendations made by the Working Group on the issue of human rights and transnational corporations and other business enterprises in its report (A/HRC/35/32/Add.2) and refers it to the Committee’s general comment No. 24 (2017) on State obligations under the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights in the context of business activities.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Concluding observations on the combined fifth and sixth periodic reports of Mexico E/C.12/MEX/CO/5-6, (2018). Par. 11. Available at: http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E%2fC.12%2fMEX%2fCO%2f5-6&Lang=en

2018 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Mexico par. 48 and par. 49 (2018) - 2178

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-mexico-par-48-and-par-49-2018

Food policy Mexico CESCR Food and nutrition security

48. The Committee is concerned that there continute to be high levels of malnutrition and food insecurity, on the one hand, and rising levels of excess weight and obesity, on the other, which interferes with the effective enjoyment of the right to adequate food (art 11). 49. The Committee recommends that the State party develop a comprehensive national strategy for...

Text of the recommendation

48. The Committee is concerned that there continute to be high levels of malnutrition and food insecurity, on the one hand, and rising levels of excess weight and obesity, on the other, which interferes with the effective enjoyment of the right to adequate food (art 11). 49. The Committee recommends that the State party develop a comprehensive national strategy for the protection and promotion of the right to adequate food in order to address food insecuirty in the different regions of the State party and to promote a healtheir diet, which, among other things, can reduce problems of excess weight and obesity.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Concluding observations on the combined fifth and sixth periodic reports of Mexico E/C.12/MEX/CO/5-6, (2018). Pars . 48; 49. Available at: http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E%2fC.12%2fMEX%2fCO%2f5-6&Lang=en

2018 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Mexico par. 15 (a) (2018) - 2175

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-mexico-par-15-a-2018

Other Health-related issues Mexico CESCR Education and information

15. (a) The Committee recommends that the State party redouble its efforts to prevent teenage pregnancy by, inter alia, ensuring that school programmes on sexual and reproductive health are age-appropriate and properly implemented and conducting campaigns to raise awareness among the general public of the negative impact of teenage pregnancy....

Text of the recommendation

15. (a) The Committee recommends that the State party redouble its efforts to prevent teenage pregnancy by, inter alia, ensuring that school programmes on sexual and reproductive health are age-appropriate and properly implemented and conducting campaigns to raise awareness among the general public of the negative impact of teenage pregnancy.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Concluding observations on the combined fifth and sixth periodic reports of Mexico E/C.12/MEX/CO/5-6, (2018). Par. 15 (d). Available at: http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E%2fC.12%2fMEX%2fCO%2f5-6&Lang=en

2006 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Mexico par. 58 and 59 (2006) - 2173

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-mexico-par-58-and-59-2006

Food policy Mexico CRC Nutritional surveillance Physical activity

58.The Committee is concerned about the lack of recreational activities, in particular sports facilities and playgrounds, and about the insufficiency of resources and infrastructure to guarantee the right to sport and leisure. The Committee notes with concern the relation between the lack of implementation of this right and the increase of child obesity. 59. The Committee recommends that the State party...

Text of the recommendation

58.The Committee is concerned about the lack of recreational activities, in particular sports facilities and playgrounds, and about the insufficiency of resources and infrastructure to guarantee the right to sport and leisure. The Committee notes with concern the relation between the lack of implementation of this right and the increase of child obesity.

59. The Committee recommends that the State party ensure that all children have access to sport and recreational activities by:

(a) Increasing the hours and quality of sports programmes in schools;

(b) Developing specific sports and leisure programmes for children and adolescents;

(c) Increasing allocation of resources for the development of infrastructure and of recreational and cultural activities.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties under Article 44 of the Convention, CRC/C/MEX/CO/3, (2006). Par. 58 and Par. 59. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fMEX%2fCO%2f3&Lang=en

2006 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Mexico par. 48 and par. 49(2006) - 2171

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-mexico-par-48-and-par-492006

Food policy Other Health-related issues Mexico CRC Fiscal measures Food and nutrition security Environment and health

48.The Committee welcomes the emphasis on children’s health of the National Development Plan for 2001-2006 and the National Health Programme for 2001-2006.The Committee also welcomes the decrease of malnutrition rates in urban areas, the decrease of the mortality rates for children under 1 year and for children under 5 years of age related to infection diseases, as well as the...

Text of the recommendation

48.The Committee welcomes the emphasis on children’s health of the National Development Plan for 2001-2006 and the National Health Programme for 2001-2006.The Committee also welcomes the decrease of malnutrition rates in urban areas, the decrease of the mortality rates for children under 1 year and for children under 5 years of age related to infection diseases, as well as the high vaccination coverage.The Committee remains concerned at the high rates of maternal mortality, the emergence of obesity and the low percentage of the GDP allocated to health.The Committee remains deeply concerned that post‑natal health care is still inadequate and that mortality and malnutrition rates, as well as other health indicators, are significantly worse in rural and remote areas and for indigenous mothers and children.

49. The Committee reiterates its previous recommendations (see document CRC/C/15/Add.112, paras. 26 and 27), in particular, its recommendation that the State party implement all necessary measures to reduce the persistence of regional disparities in access to health care, the high rates of malnutrition among children under 5 years of age and those of school age, especially in rural and remote areas and among children belonging CRC/C/MEX/CO/3 page 12 to indigenous groups. It also recommends developing interventions programmes for the new challenges that emerge from the globalization and the urbanization process: child obesity as well as environmental health.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties under Article 44 of the Convention, CRC/C/MEX/CO/3, (2006). Par. 48 and 49. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fMEX%2fCO%2f3&Lang=en

2006 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Mexico par. 53 (a) (2006) - 2164

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-mexico-par-53-a-2006

Other Health-related issues Mexico CRC Education and information

53. The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account the Committee’s general comment No. 3 (2003) on HIV/AIDS and the rights of the child and the International Guidelines on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights: (a) Strengthen its efforts to combat HIV/AIDS, including through awareness-raising campaigns....

Text of the recommendation

53. The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account the Committee’s general comment No. 3 (2003) on HIV/AIDS and the rights of the child and

the International Guidelines on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights: (a) Strengthen its efforts to combat HIV/AIDS, including through awareness-raising campaigns.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties under Article 44 of the Convention, CRC/C/MEX/CO/3, (2006). Par. 53 (a). Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fMEX%2fCO%2f3&Lang=en

2015 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Mexico par. 48 (d) and (e) (2015) - 2162

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-mexico-par-48-d-and-e-2015

Food policy Mexico CRC Food marketing regulations Education and information Breastfeeding

48. The Committee draws the State party’s attention to its general comment No. 15 (2013) on the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health, and recommends that the State party: (d) Increase efforts to promote breastfeeding through educational campaigns and training to professionals, adequately implement the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes...

Text of the recommendation

48. The Committee draws the State party’s attention to its general comment No. 15 (2013) on the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health, and recommends that the State party: (d) Increase efforts to promote breastfeeding through educational campaigns and training to professionals, adequately implement the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes and the Child-friendly Hospital Initiative; (e) Continue raising awareness at the national, federal and local levels on the negative health impacts of processed food and strengthen regulations to restrict advertising and marketing of junk, salty, sugary and fatty foods and their availability to children.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the combined fourth and fifth periodic reports of Mexico, Par. 48 (d) and (e). Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fMEX%2fCO%2f4-5&Lang=en

2015 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Mexico par. 47 (c), (d) and (e) (2015) - 2160

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-mexico-par-47-c-d-and-e-2015

Food policy Mexico CRC Food and nutrition security Breastfeeding

47. The Committee notes the measures taken by the State party to reduce child and maternal mortality. However, it is concerned that: (c)Child chronic malnutrition is persistent, especially among indigenous and rural children; (d) Exclusive breastfeeding is decreasing; (e) The number of children who are overweight or obese is increasing....

Text of the recommendation

47. The Committee notes the measures taken by the State party to reduce child and maternal mortality. However, it is concerned that: (c)Child chronic malnutrition is persistent, especially among indigenous and rural children; (d) Exclusive breastfeeding is decreasing; (e) The number of children who are overweight or obese is increasing.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the combined fourth and fifth periodic reports of Mexico, Par. 47 (c)(d)(e). Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fMEX%2fCO%2f4-5&Lang=en

2015 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Mexico par. 52 (c) (2015) - 2157

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-mexico-par-52-c-2015

Food policy Tobacco control Mexico CRC Industry interference

52. The Committee recommends that the State party: (c) Further examine and adapt its legislative framework to ensure the legal accountability of business enterprises involved in activities having a negative impact on the environment, in the light of its general comment No. 16 (2013) on State obligations regarding the impact of the business sector on children’s rights....

Text of the recommendation

52. The Committee recommends that the State party: (c) Further examine and adapt its legislative framework to ensure the legal accountability of business enterprises involved in activities having a negative impact on the environment, in the light of its general comment No. 16 (2013) on State obligations regarding the impact of the business sector on children’s rights.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the combined fourth and fifth periodic reports of Mexico, CRC/C/MEX/CO/4-5, (2015). Par. 52 (c). Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fMEX%2fCO%2f4-5&Lang=en

2001 - Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Recommendation for Jamaica par. 222 (2001) - 2154

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-elimination-of-discrimination-against-women-recommendation-for-jamaica-par-222-2001

Tobacco control Jamaica CEDAW Tobacco use

222. The Committee also expresses concern at the absence of information in the reports on tobacco and alcohol addiction among women. It further expresses concern at the absence of information on drug addiction among women, in particular in the light of decriminalization of the use of certain drugs. The Committee requests that information on these areas be provided in the...

Text of the recommendation

222. The Committee also expresses concern at the absence of information in the reports on tobacco and alcohol addiction among women. It further expresses concern at the absence of information on drug addiction among women, in particular in the light of decriminalization of the use of certain drugs. The Committee requests that information on these areas be provided in the next report and, taking account of paragraph 10 of its general recommendation 24 on women and health,2 on any measures adopted to address these issues.

Citation

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Part oneReport of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women on its twenty-fourth session, A/56/38, (2022). Par. 222. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=dtYoAzPhJ4NMy4Lu1TOebNVFC%2BPfufDasetLbtw5AbyRCEajJ8HiYolszIt4kYVZLnfUjZQSJCtiZtnvjMOFtGY13NhXEz0C3Ire3GUskoE9unPg8%2B6i6rvTFn1QWB8I

2013 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Jamaica par. 26 (2013) - 2151

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-jamaica-par-26-2013

Food policy Jamaica CESCR Food production Education and information Food and nutrition security

26. The Committee takes note of the difficulties faced by the State party to guarantee the right to adequate food by way of local production due to the frequency of natural hazards, inefficient farming practices, lack of suitable land, and increases in commodity prices. While noting the importance of food importation to meet the dietary needs of the population, the...

Text of the recommendation

26. The Committee takes note of the difficulties faced by the State party to guarantee the right to adequate food by way of local production due to the frequency of natural hazards, inefficient farming practices, lack of suitable land, and increases in commodity prices. While noting the importance of food importation to meet the dietary needs of the population, the Committee is concerned at the information provided by the State party that exposure to cheaper imports based on new trading agreements has led to the displacement of local farmers (art. 11).

The Committee recommends that the State party adopt effective long-term strategies aimed at improving domestic productivity in a sustainable manner and building the capacity of local farmers, taking into account the Committee’s general comment N o. 12 (1999) on the right to adequate food. It also reminds the State party to assess the adverse impact of any trade agreements on the enjoyment of economic, social and cultural rights of the population, and provide detailed information in its next State party report concerning trade agreements entered by the State party and their impact on the enjoyment of economic, social and cultural rights, particularly among local farmers.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Concluding observations on the combined third and fourth periodic reports of Jamaica, E/C.12/JAM/CO/3-4, (2013). Par. 26. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E%2fC.12%2fJAM%2fCO%2f3-4&Lang=en

2015 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Jamaica par. 44 and 45 (f) (2015) - 2148

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-jamaica-par-44-and-45-f-2015

Food policy Jamaica CRC Breastfeeding

44. The Committee is concerned, however, about perinatal mortality levels, the increase in maternal mortality, persistent levels of undernourishment among the poorest children, the general shortage of health-care providers and the lack of access by children to quality health care, the low levels of breastfeeding and the high proportion of children classified as overweight or obese. 45. The Committee, in...

Text of the recommendation

44. The Committee is concerned, however, about perinatal mortality levels, the increase in maternal mortality, persistent levels of undernourishment among the poorest children, the general shortage of health-care providers and the lack of access by children to quality health care, the low levels of breastfeeding and the high proportion of children classified as overweight or obese.

45. The Committee, in the light of its general comment No. 15 (2013) on the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health ( art. 24), recommends that the State party: (f) Combat obesity among children , intensify measures to raise awareness of healthy nutrition among parents, children and the public in general , and promote healthy eating habits , particularly among young Children and/or adolescents.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the combined third and fourth periodic reports of Jamaica, CRC/C/JAM/CO/3-4, (2015). Par. 44; 45 (f). Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fJAM%2fCO%2f3-4&Lang=en

2010 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for El Salvador par. 18 (a) (2010) - 2145

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-el-salvador-par-18-a-2010

Food policy El Salvador CRC Food and nutrition security

18. The Committee recommends that the State party: (a) Address the issue of budget allocations for children not simply as a matter of expenditures in the areas of child protection, but in a more holistic approach which covers health, education, food and food security, water, basic sanitation, recreation, prevention of violence, etc.;...

Text of the recommendation

18. The Committee recommends that the State party: (a) Address the issue of budget allocations for children not simply as a matter of expenditures in the areas of child protection, but in a more holistic approach which covers health, education, food and food security, water, basic sanitation, recreation, prevention of violence, etc.;

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention-Concluding observations: El Salvador, CRC/C/SLV/CO/3-45, (2010). Par. 18 (a). Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsgtf1aThfVVm05W8AtfqlZw2z7yjg5PIx7eooXMdu16buiYiWJo8n8qDm389cijnOUYwmge6JHXgKe1EJfjy1Jgf4SXauL13HOKtGALSTGTr

2014 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for El Salvador, par. 20 (2014) - 2142

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-el-salvador-par-20-2014

Food policy Ecuador CESCR Food and nutrition security Access to water

20.The Committee recommends that Parliament complete ratification of the constitutional amendments guaranteeing the right to food and access to water in the Constitution. It also urges the State party to step up its efforts to prevent and combat child malnutrition, in particular among children in rural and remote areas....

Text of the recommendation

20.The Committee recommends that Parliament complete ratification of the constitutional amendments guaranteeing the right to food and access to water in the Constitution. It also urges the State party to step up its efforts to prevent and combat child malnutrition, in particular among children in rural and remote areas.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Concluding observations on the combined third, fourth and fifth periodic reports of El Salvador, E/C.12/SLV/CO/3-5, (2014). Par. 20. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=4slQ6QSmlBEDzFEovLCuW%2FH%2F4vptEr4hUabmo93cgAjuk%2Be%2FTjLCpS4Ww%2FB11TCG6EB2ho9sBjXjzJGxpygdFju10BRCHjuzKeke6acT1U0vLTAET8ayYsS6XOr1uzYd

2018 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for El Salvador, par. 37 and 39(2018) - 2139

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-el-salvador-par-37-and-392018

Food policy Tobacco control El Salvador CRC Education and information Food and nutrition security Tobacco use

37. The Committee is concerned about the unavailability of specialized health facilities for children aged older than 12 years and the number of children consuming alcohol, tobacco and drugs, and recommends that the State party: (a) Make specialized health facilities available for children aged older than...

Text of the recommendation

37. The Committee is concerned about the unavailability of specialized health facilities for children aged older than 12 years and the number of children consuming alcohol, tobacco and drugs, and recommends that the State party:

(a) Make specialized health facilities available for children aged older than 12 years;

(b) Continue taking measures to address alcohol, drug and tobacco use among adolescents, including through awareness-raising programmes and campaigns, strengthen the regulation of alcohol and tobacco sales, and develop accessible and youth-friendly drug dependence treatment and harm-reduction services.

39. The Committee remains concerned about the incidence of child malnutrition, mostly among children in situations of poverty and, taking note of target 2.2 of the Sustainable Development Goals on ending all forms of malnutrition, recommends that the State party:

(a) Address the underlying causes of child malnutrition, including economic deprivation;

(b) Continue to invest in measures to promote exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months;

(c) Strengthen measures to address the issue of overweight children and childhood obesity in both urban and rural areas;

(d) Systematically collect data on children ’ s food security and nutrition.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the combined fifth and sixth periodic reports of El Salvador, CRC/C/SLV/CO/5-6 (2018). Par. 37 and par. 39. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2FC%2FSLV%2FCO%2F5-6&Lang=en

2022 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for El Salvador par. 27 (c) (2022) - 2136

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-el-salvador-par-27-c-2022

Food policy Other Health-related issues El Salvador CESCR Education and information Food and nutrition security

27. (c)Ensure that lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex persons are able to enjoy their economic, social and cultural rights and have access to health, education, employment, housing, poverty reduction and food security programmes....

Text of the recommendation

27. (c)Ensure that lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex persons are able to enjoy their economic, social and cultural rights and have access to health, education, employment, housing, poverty reduction and food security programmes.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Concluding observations on the sixth periodic report of El Salvador, E/C.12/SLV/CO/6, (2022). Par. 27 (c). Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=4slQ6QSmlBEDzFEovLCuW%2FH%2F4vptEr4hUabmo93cgAjz7LVpr9z26A9Rc%2FsizORElhUCbF%2BWp%2BHgNKqdIw15eiBItPXNBkHPGa5DAAXW5om040rkX0RIZgYIfUmG4p21

2019 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Ecuador par. 43 and 44 (d) (2019) - 2133

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-ecuador-par-43-and-44-d-2019

Food policy Ecuador CESCR Fiscal measures Nutritional surveillance

43. The Committee is also concerned at the rates of malnutrition in the State party, a problem which disproportionately affects children and adolescents. Lastly, the Committee is also concerned about barriers faced by campesino and Montubio people in enjoying access to seeds (art. 11). 44. The Committee recommends that the State party: (d) Recognize the situation of malnutrition as a national...

Text of the recommendation

43. The Committee is also concerned at the rates of malnutrition in the State party, a problem which disproportionately affects children and adolescents. Lastly, the Committee is also concerned about barriers faced by campesino and Montubio people in enjoying access to seeds (art. 11).

44. The Committee recommends that the State party: (d) Recognize the situation of malnutrition as a national priority and adopt a comprehensive policy to address malnutrition, with sufficient human and financial resources.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Concluding observations on the fourth periodic report of Ecuador, E/C.12/ECU/CO/4, (2019). Par. 43. and Par. 44 (d). Available at: http://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=4slQ6QSmlBEDzFEovLCuW20%2bcOfdvJEUdqkza02UbxazKNyMi%2fruleeTZAtZO5G2lYiDPlwFndzCBj%2fKdd2Eafzqt4JieRE%2bnzDcrG%2f2j3sBMe%2bTgfTYnd5FBaO8qvi%2b

2012 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Ecuador par. 24 (2012) - 2130

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-ecuador-par-24-2012

Food policy Ecuador CESCR Nutritional surveillance

24. The Committee recommends that the State party work with civil society to draw up municipal maps showing the location of population sectors subject to food and nutritional insecurity and that it compile disaggregated information for use in setting priorities for the development of measures to combat malnutrition and mechanisms for monitoring progress towards the achievement of proposed targets. The...

Text of the recommendation

24. The Committee recommends that the State party work with civil society to draw up municipal maps showing the location of population sectors subject to food and nutritional insecurity and that it compile disaggregated information for use in setting priorities for the development of measures to combat malnutrition and mechanisms for monitoring progress towards the achievement of proposed targets. The Committee recommends that the State party expand upon the existing legal framework for the protection of the right to food and that it supplement the Food Sovereignty Organization Act with provisions designed to safeguard food sovereignty.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Concluding observations of the Committee on the third periodic report of Ecuador as approved by the Committee at its forty-ninth session (14–30 November 2012), E/C.12/ECU/CO/3, (2012). Par. 24. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E%2fC.12%2fECU%2fCO%2f3&Lang=en

2017 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Ecuador par. 33 (2017) - 2128

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-ecuador-par-33-2017

Food policy Tobacco control Ecuador CRC Fiscal measures

33. With reference to its general comment No. 15 (2013) on the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health and taking note of target 3.2 of the Sustainable Development Goals to end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age. 19. the Committee recommends that the State party: (c) Ensure...

Text of the recommendation

33. With reference to its general comment No. 15 (2013) on the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health and taking note of target 3.2 of the Sustainable Development Goals to end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age. 19. the Committee recommends that the State party: (c) Ensure sufficient budget allocation and accountability mechanisms for universal coverage of vaccination s and the provision of nutrients and minerals , as well as programmes to combat child and maternal mortality and malnutrition;

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the combined fifth and sixth periodic reports of Ecuador, CRC/C/ECU/CO/5-6, (2017). Par. 33 (c). Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fECU%2fCO%2f5-6&Lang=en

2017 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Ecuador par. 11 (b) (2017) - 2126

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-ecuador-par-11-b-2017

Food policy Ecuador CRC Nutritional surveillance

11. the Committee recommends that the State party: (b) Set up a data-collection system on chronic malnutrition, in particular in rural areas, and on different forms of violence against children; ...

Text of the recommendation

11. the Committee recommends that the State party: (b) Set up a data-collection system on chronic malnutrition, in particular in rural areas, and on different forms of violence against children;


Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the combined fifth and sixth periodic reports of Ecuador, CRC/C/ECU/CO/5-6, (2017). Par. 11 (b). Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fECU%2fCO%2f5-6&Lang=en

2017 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Ecuador par. 10 (b) (2017) - 2123

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-ecuador-par-10-b-2017

Food policy Ecuador CRC Fiscal measures

10. While noting the information concerning the increase in social investment as a proportion of the general State budget, with reference to its general comment No. 19 (2016) on public budgeting for the realization of children' s rights , the Committee recommends that the State party: (...) (b) Allocate resources for the rights of all children, including for the eradication...

Text of the recommendation

10. While noting the information concerning the increase in social investment as a proportion of the general State budget, with reference to its general comment No. 19 (2016) on public budgeting for the realization of children' s rights , the Committee recommends that the State party: (...) (b) Allocate resources for the rights of all children, including for the eradication of multidimensional poverty in early childhood, eradication of child malnutrition, comprehensive protection of children, and actions to tackle violence against children.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the combined fifth and sixth periodic reports of Ecuador, CRC/C/ECU/CO/5-6, (2017). Par. 10 (b). Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fECU%2fCO%2f5-6&Lang=en

1998 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Ecuador par. 22 (1998) - 2120

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-ecuador-par-22-1998

Food policy Ecuador CRC Nutritional surveillance Breastfeeding

22. In particular, concerted efforts are required to combat malnutrition and ensure the adoption and implementation of a national nutritional policy for children. International cooperation for the establishment of programmes such as the WHO/UNICEF “Integrated Management of Childhood Illness” is recommended. In addition, the Committee recommends that breastfeeding be promoted in all health facilities and among the public at large....

Text of the recommendation

22. In particular, concerted efforts are required to combat malnutrition and ensure the adoption and implementation of a national nutritional policy for children. International cooperation for the establishment of programmes such as the WHO/UNICEF “Integrated Management of Childhood Illness” is recommended. In addition, the Committee recommends that breastfeeding be promoted in all health facilities and among the public at large.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties under Article 44 of the Convention, CRC/C/15/Add.93, (1998). Par. 22. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2f15%2fAdd.93&Lang=en

2005 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Ecuador par. 58 (2005) - 2118

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-ecuador-par-58-2005

Food policy Ecuador CRC Food and nutrition security

58. The Committee recommends that the State party increase its effort to provide vulnerable and marginalized children, including indigenous and Afro-Ecuadorian children, with material assistance and support programmes, particularly with regard to nutrition, clothing and housing in accordance with article 27 of the Convention....

Text of the recommendation

58. The Committee recommends that the State party increase its effort to provide vulnerable and marginalized children, including indigenous and Afro-Ecuadorian children, with material assistance and support programmes, particularly with regard to nutrition, clothing and housing in accordance with article 27 of the Convention.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties under Article 44 of the Convention, CRC/C/15/Add.262, (2005). Par. 58. Available at: http://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2fPPRiCAqhKb7yhsgnXZ0ChBsrwmcy8%2f%2bFNoDG5U%2bAtDQEFDRJVKzURIlxEnCpy6qD8jkC7hsgqMfcsNcNynqEEhdij3ObGrap%2fo0vf8uqhF9I%2fe7wyNLHOb931

2005 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Ecuador par. 52 (2005) - 2116

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-ecuador-par-52-2005

Food policy Ecuador CRC Food and nutrition security Breastfeeding

52. The Committee recommends that the State party strengthen its efforts to improve the health situation of children in the State party and improve access to quality health services and address the issue of malnutrition, particularly in rural and remote areas. The Committee also recommends that the State party strengthen the “Mother-and-child friendly hospitals” Initiative and update training manuals for...

Text of the recommendation

52. The Committee recommends that the State party strengthen its efforts to improve the health situation of children in the State party and improve access to quality health services and address the issue of malnutrition, particularly in rural and remote areas. The Committee also recommends that the State party strengthen the “Mother-and-child friendly hospitals” Initiative and update training manuals for health professionals on the promotion and protection of breastfeeding.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties under Article 44 of the Convention, CRC/C/15/Add.262, (2005). Par. 52. Available at: http://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2fPPRiCAqhKb7yhsgnXZ0ChBsrwmcy8%2f%2bFNoDG5U%2bAtDQEFDRJVKzURIlxEnCpy6qD8jkC7hsgqMfcsNcNynqEEhdij3ObGrap%2fo0vf8uqhF9I%2fe7wyNLHOb931

2010 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Ecuador par. 39 (2010) - 2113

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-ecuador-par-39-2010

Food policy Ecuador CRC Food and nutrition security

39. The Committee recommends that the State party continue and strengthen policies and programmes to address issues related to the right to life, survival and development of children, and continue to pay particular attention to addressing the problems of child mortality and chronic malnutrition. ...

Text of the recommendation

39. The Committee recommends that the State party continue and strengthen policies and programmes to address issues related to the right to life, survival and development of children, and continue to pay particular attention to addressing the problems of child mortality and chronic malnutrition.


Citation

Committee on the rights of the Child, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention-Concluding observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child: Ecuador, CRC/C/ECU/CO/4, (2010). Par. 39. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fECU%2fCO%2f4&Lang=en

2020 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Recommendation #25 par. 59 (2020) - 2111

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-general-recommendation-25-par-59-2020

Food policy Tobacco control CESCR Industry interference

59. In some cases, scientific research conducted or financed by private actors can create conflicts of interests, for instance, when business corporations support research related to the type of economic activities in which they are involved, as happened in the past with some tobacco companies. Mechanisms should be established for the disclosure of these actual or perceived conflicts of interest....

Text of the recommendation

59. In some cases, scientific research conducted or financed by private actors can create conflicts of interests, for instance, when business corporations support research related to the type of economic activities in which they are involved, as happened in the past with some tobacco companies. Mechanisms should be established for the disclosure of these actual or perceived conflicts of interest.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General comment No. 25 (2021) - on children’s rights in relation to the digital environment, CRC/C/GC/25, (2021), Par. 59. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC/C/GC/25&Lang=en

2021 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Recommendation #25 par. 97 (2021) - 2109

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-general-recommendation-25-par-97-2021-2

Food policy Tobacco control CRC Food marketing regulations Digital environment Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS)

97. States should encourage the use of digital technologies to promote healthy lifestyles, including physical and social activity. States should regulate targeted or age-inappropriate advertising, marketing or service designed to prevent children’s exposure to the promotion of unhealthy food and beverages, alcohol, drugs, tobacco and other nicotine products. Such regulations relating to the digital environment should be compatible with and...

Text of the recommendation

97. States should encourage the use of digital technologies to promote healthy lifestyles, including physical and social activity. States should regulate targeted or age-inappropriate advertising, marketing or service designed to prevent children’s exposure to the promotion of unhealthy food and beverages, alcohol, drugs, tobacco and other nicotine products. Such regulations relating to the digital environment should be compatible with and keep pace with regulation in the offline environment.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, General comment No. 25 (2021) on children’s rights in relation to the digital environment, CRC/C/GC/25, (2021), Par. 97. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2FPPRiCAqhKb7yhsqIkirKQZLK2M58RF%2F5F0vEG%2BcAAx34gC78FwvnmZXGFUl9nJBDpKR1dfKekJxW2w9nNryRsgArkTJgKelqeZwK9WXzMkZRZd37nLN1bFc2t

2021 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Recommendation #25 par. 97 (2021) - 2107

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-general-recommendation-25-par-97-2021

Food policy Tobacco control CRC Food marketing regulations Digital environment Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS)

97. States parties should encourage the use of digital technologies to promote healthy lifestyles, including physical and social activity. They should regulate targeted or age-inappropriate advertising, marketing and other relevant digital services to prevent children’s exposure to the promotion of unhealthy products, including certain food and beverages, alcohol, drugs and tobacco and other nicotine products. Such regulations relating to the...

Text of the recommendation

97. States parties should encourage the use of digital technologies to promote healthy lifestyles, including physical and social activity. They should regulate targeted or age-inappropriate advertising, marketing and other relevant digital services to prevent children’s exposure to the promotion of unhealthy products, including certain food and beverages, alcohol, drugs and tobacco and other nicotine products. Such regulations relating to the digital environment should be compatible and keep pace with regulations in the offline environment.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General comment No. 25 (2021) - on children’s rights in relation to the digital environment, CRC/C/GC/25, (2021), Par. 97. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC/C/GC/25&Lang=en

2021 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Recommendation #25 par. 41 and par. 42 (2021) - 2105

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-general-recommendation-25-par-41-and-par-42-2021

Food policy Tobacco control CRC Food marketing regulations Digital environment Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS)

41. States parties should make the best interests of the child a primary consideration when regulating advertising and marketing addressed to and accessible to children. Sponsorship, product placement and all other forms of commercially driven content should be clearly distinguished from all other content and should not perpetuate gender or racial stereotypes. 42. States parties should prohibit by law the profiling...

Text of the recommendation

41. States parties should make the best interests of the child a primary consideration when regulating advertising and marketing addressed to and accessible to children. Sponsorship, product placement and all other forms of commercially driven content should be clearly distinguished from all other content and should not perpetuate gender or racial stereotypes.

42. States parties should prohibit by law the profiling or targeting of children of any age for commercial purposes on the basis of a digital record of their actual or inferred characteristics, including group or collective data, targeting by association or affinity profiling. Practices that rely on neuromarketing, emotional analytics, immersive advertising and advertising in virtual and augmented reality environments to promote products, applications and services should also be prohibited from engagement directly or indirectly with children.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General comment No. 25 (2021) - on children’s rights in relation to the digital environment, CRC/C/GC/25, (2021), Par. 41; 42. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC/C/GC/25&Lang=en

2021 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Recommendation #25 par. 38 and par. 39 (2021) - 2103

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-general-recommendation-25-par-38-and-par-39-2021

Food policy Tobacco control CRC Industry interference Digital environment

38. States parties should require the business sector to undertake child rights due diligence, in particular to carry out child rights impact assessments and disclose them to the public, with special consideration given to the differentiated and, at times, severe impacts of the digital environment on children. They should take appropriate steps to prevent, monitor, investigate and punish child rights...

Text of the recommendation

38. States parties should require the business sector to undertake child rights due diligence, in particular to carry out child rights impact assessments and disclose them to the public, with special consideration given to the differentiated and, at times, severe impacts of the digital environment on children. They should take appropriate steps to prevent, monitor, investigate and punish child rights abuses by businesses.

39. In addition to developing legislation and policies, States parties should require all businesses that affect children’s rights in relation to the digital environment to implement regulatory frameworks, industry codes and terms of services that adhere to the highest standards of ethics, privacy and safety in relation to the design, engineering, development, operation, distribution and marketing of their products and services. That includes businesses that target children, have children as end users or otherwise affect children. They should require such businesses to maintain high standards of transparency and accountability and encourage them to take measures to innovate in the best interests of the child. They should also require the provision of age-appropriate explanations to children, or to parents and caregivers for very young children, of their terms of service.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General comment No. 25 (2021) - on children’s rights in relation to the digital environment, CRC/C/GC/25, (2021), Par. 37; 38. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC/C/GC/25&Lang=en

2021 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Recommendation #25 par. 37 (2021) - 2101

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-general-recommendation-25-par-37-2021

Other Health-related issues CRC N/A

37. States parties have a duty to protect children from infringements of their rights by business enterprises, including the right to be protected from all forms of violence in the digital environment. Although businesses may not be directly involved in perpetrating harmful acts, they can cause or contribute to violations of children’s right to freedom from violence, including through the...

Text of the recommendation

37. States parties have a duty to protect children from infringements of their rights by business enterprises, including the right to be protected from all forms of violence in the digital environment. Although businesses may not be directly involved in perpetrating harmful acts, they can cause or contribute to violations of children’s right to freedom from violence, including through the design and operation of digital services. States parties should put in place, monitor and enforce laws and regulations aimed at preventing violations of the right to protection from violence, as well as those aimed at investigating, adjudicating on and redressing violations as they occur in relation to the digital environment.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General comment No. 25 (2021) - on children’s rights in relation to the digital environment, CRC/C/GC/25, (2021), Par. 36. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC/C/GC/25&Lang=en

2021 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Recommendation #25 par. 23 (2021) - 2096

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-general-recommendation-25-par-23-2021

Food policy Tobacco control CRC Digital environment

23. States parties should review, adopt and update national legislation in line with international human rights standards, to ensure that the digital environment is compatible with the rights set out in the Convention and the Optional Protocols thereto. Legislation should remain relevant, in the context of technological advances and emerging practices. They should mandate the use of child rights impact...

Text of the recommendation

23. States parties should review, adopt and update national legislation in line with international human rights standards, to ensure that the digital environment is compatible with the rights set out in the Convention and the Optional Protocols thereto. Legislation should remain relevant, in the context of technological advances and emerging practices. They should mandate the use of child rights impact assessments to embed children’s rights into legislation, budgetary allocations and other administrative decisions relating to the digital environment and promote their use among public bodies and businesses relating to the digital environment.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General comment No. 25 (2021) - on children’s rights in relation to the digital environment, CRC/C/GC/25, (2021), Par. 23. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC/C/GC/25&Lang=en. Other resources

Terminology glossary: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CRC/Shared%20Documents/1_Global/INT_CRC_INF_9314_E.pdf

Explanatory notes:

https://5rightsfoundation.com/uploads/ExplanatoryNotes_UNCRCGC25.pdf

Child-friendly version:

https://5rightsfoundation.com/In_Our_Own_Words_Young_Peoples_Version_Online.pdf

1990 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Recommendation #3 par. 3 (1990) - 2093

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-general-recommendation-3-par-3-1990

Other Health-related issues CESCR Education and information

3. In fields such as health, the protection of children and mothers, and education, as well as in respect of the matters dealt with in articles 6 to 9, legislation may also be an indispensable element for many purposes....

Text of the recommendation

3. In fields such as health, the protection of children and mothers, and education, as well as in respect of the matters dealt with in articles 6 to 9, legislation may also be an indispensable element for many purposes.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General comment No. 3 - The nature of States parties’ obligations, (1990). Par 3. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=INT%2fCESCR%2fGEC%2f4758&Lang=en

1995 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Recommendation #6 par. 35 (1995) - 2090

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-general-recommendation-6-par-35-1995

Food policy Tobacco control CESCR Physical activity Food and nutrition security Tobacco use

35. Clearly, the growing number of chronic, degenerative diseases and the high hospitalization costs they involve cannot be dealt with only by curative treatment. In this regard, States parties should bear in mind that maintaining health into old age requires investments during the entire life-span, basically through the adoption of healthy lifestyles (food, exercise, elimination of tobacco and alcohol, etc.)....

Text of the recommendation

35. Clearly, the growing number of chronic, degenerative diseases and the high hospitalization costs they involve cannot be dealt with only by curative treatment. In this regard, States parties should bear in mind that maintaining health into old age requires investments during the entire life-span, basically through the adoption of healthy lifestyles (food, exercise, elimination of tobacco and alcohol, etc.). Prevention, through regular checks suited to the needs of older persons, plays a decisive role, as does rehabilitation, by maintaining the functional capacities of older persons, with a resulting decrease in the cost of investments in health care and social services.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, GENERAL COMMENT NO. 6 - The economic, social and cultural rights of older persons, (1995). Par. 35. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=INT%2fCESCR%2fGEC%2f6429&Lang=en

1999 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Recommendation #12 par. 8 (1999) - 2088

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-general-recommendation-12-par-8-1999

Food policy CESCR Food and nutrition security

8. The Committee considers that the core content of the right to adequate food implies: The availability of food in a quantity and quality sufficient to satisfy the dietary needs of individuals, free from adverse substances, and acceptable within a given culture; The accessibility of such food in ways that are sustainable and that do not interfere with the enjoyment of other...

Text of the recommendation

8. The Committee considers that the core content of the right to adequate food implies:

The availability of food in a quantity and quality sufficient to satisfy the dietary needs of individuals, free from adverse substances, and acceptable within a given culture;

The accessibility of such food in ways that are sustainable and that do not interfere with the enjoyment of other human rights.


Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, GENERAL COMMENT 12 - The right to adequate food (art. 11), E/C.12/1999/5, (1999). Par. 8. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E%2fC.12%2f2000%2f4&Lang=en

1999 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Recommendation #12 par. 14 (1999) - 2086

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-general-recommendation-12-par-14-1999

Food policy CESCR Food and nutrition security

14. The nature of the legal obligations of States parties are set out in article 2 of the Covenant and has been dealt with in the Committee's General Comment No. 3 (1990). The principal obligation is to take steps to achieve progressively the full realization of the right to adequate food. This imposes an obligation to move as expeditiously as...

Text of the recommendation

14. The nature of the legal obligations of States parties are set out in article 2 of the Covenant and has been dealt with in the Committee's General Comment No. 3 (1990). The principal obligation is to take steps to achieve progressively the full realization of the right to adequate food. This imposes an obligation to move as expeditiously as possible towards that goal. Every State is obliged to ensure for everyone under its jurisdiction access to the minimum essential food which is sufficient, nutritionally adequate and safe, to ensure their freedom from hunger.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, GENERAL COMMENT 12 - The right to adequate food (art. 11), E/C.12/1999/5, (1999). Par. 14. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E%2fC.12%2f2000%2f4&Lang=en

1999 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Recommendation #12 par. 25 (1999) - 2083

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-general-recommendation-12-par-25-1999

Food policy CESCR Food marketing regulations Food production Education and information Food and nutrition security

25. The strategy should address critical issues and measures in regard to all aspects of the food system, including the production, processing, distribution, marketing and consumption of safe food, as well as parallel measures in the fields of health, education, employment and social security....

Text of the recommendation

25. The strategy should address critical issues and measures in regard to all aspects of the food system, including the production, processing, distribution, marketing and consumption of safe food, as well as parallel measures in the fields of health, education, employment and social security.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, GENERAL COMMENT 12 - The right to adequate food (art. 11), E/C.12/1999/5, (1999). Par. 25. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E%2fC.12%2f1999%2f5&Lang=en

2000 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Recommendation #14 par. 11 (2000) - 2081

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-general-recommendation-14-par-11-2000

Food policy Other Health-related issues CESCR Education and information Food and nutrition security Access to water Environment and health

11. The Committee interprets the right to health, as defined in article 12.1, as an inclusive right extending not only to timely and appropriate health care but also to the underlying determinants of health, such as access to safe and potable water and adequate sanitation, an adequate supply of safe food, nutrition and housing, healthy occupational and environmental conditions, and...

Text of the recommendation

11. The Committee interprets the right to health, as defined in article 12.1, as an inclusive right extending not only to timely and appropriate health care but also to the underlying determinants of health, such as access to safe and potable water and adequate sanitation, an adequate supply of safe food, nutrition and housing, healthy occupational and environmental conditions, and access to health-related education and information, including on sexual and reproductive health.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment No. 14 - The right to the highest attainable standard of health, E/C.12/2000/4, (2000). Par. 11. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E%2fC.12%2f2000%2f4&Lang=en

2000 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Recommendation #14 par. 51 (2000) - 2079

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-general-recommendation-14-par-51-2000

Tobacco control CESCR Industry interference Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS) Tobacco use

51. Violations of the obligation to protect follow from the failure of a State to take all necessary measures to safeguard persons within their jurisdiction from infringements of the right to health by third parties. This category includes such omissions as the failure to regulate the activities of individuals, groups or corporations so as to prevent them from violating the...

Text of the recommendation

51. Violations of the obligation to protect follow from the failure of a State to take all necessary measures to safeguard persons within their jurisdiction from infringements of the right to health by third parties. This category includes such omissions as the failure to regulate the activities of individuals, groups or corporations so as to prevent them from violating the right to health of others; the failure to protect consumers and workers from practices detrimental to health, e.g. by employers and manufacturers of medicines or food; the failure to discourage production, marketing and consumption of tobacco, narcotics and other harmful substances; (...)

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment No. 14 - The right to the highest attainable standard of health, E/C.12/2000/4, (2000). Par. 51. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E%2fC.12%2f2000%2f4&Lang=en

2000 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Recommendation #14 par. 43 (2000) - 2077

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-general-recommendation-14-par-43-2000

Food policy CESCR Food and nutrition security

43. Accordingly, in the Committee’s view, these core obligations include at least the following obligations: (b)To ensure access to the minimum essential food which is nutritionally adequate and safe, to ensure freedom from hunger to everyone;...

Text of the recommendation

43. Accordingly, in the Committee’s view, these core obligations include at least the following obligations: (b)To ensure access to the minimum essential food which is nutritionally adequate and safe, to ensure freedom from hunger to everyone;

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment No. 14 - The right to the highest attainable standard of health, E/C.12/2000/4, (2000). Par. 43 b). Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E%2fC.12%2f2000%2f4&Lang=en

2000 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Recommendation #14 par. 15 (2000) - 2070

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-general-recommendation-14-par-15-2000

Food policy Tobacco control CESCR Food and nutrition security Tobacco use

15. Article 12.2 (b) also embraces adequate housing and safe and hygienic working conditions, an adequate supply of food and proper nutrition, and discourages the abuse of alcohol,and the use of tobacco, drugs and other harmful substances....

Text of the recommendation

15. Article 12.2 (b) also embraces adequate housing and safe and hygienic working conditions, an adequate supply of food and proper nutrition, and discourages the abuse of alcohol,and the use of tobacco, drugs and other harmful substances.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment No. 14 - The right to the highest attainable standard of health, E/C.12/2000/4, (2000). Par. 15. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E%2fC.12%2f2000%2f4&Lang=en

2000 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Recommendation #14 par. 3 and par. 4 (2000) - 2067

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-general-recommendation-14-par-3-and-par-4-2000

Other Health-related issues CESCR N/A

3. The right to health is closely related to and dependent upon the realization of other human rights, as contained in the International Bill of Rights, including the rights to food, housing, work, education, human dignity, life, non-discrimination, equality, the prohibition against torture, privacy, access to information, and the freedoms of association, assembly and movement. These and other rights and...

Text of the recommendation

3. The right to health is closely related to and dependent upon the realization of other human rights, as contained in the International Bill of Rights, including the rights to food, housing, work, education, human dignity, life, non-discrimination, equality, the prohibition against torture, privacy, access to information, and the freedoms of association, assembly and movement. These and other rights and freedoms address integral components of the right to health. 4. In drafting article 12 of the Covenant, the Third Committee of the United Nations General Assembly did not adopt the definition of health contained in the preamble to the Constitution of WHO, which conceptualizes health as “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”. However, the reference in article 12.1 of the Covenant to “the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health” is not confined to the right to health care. On the contrary, the drafting history and the express wording of article 12.2 acknowledge that the right to health embraces a wide range of socio‑economic factors that promote conditions in which people can lead a healthy life, and extends to the underlying determinants of health, such as food and nutrition, housing, access to safe and potable water and adequate sanitation, safe and healthy working conditions, and a healthy environment.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment No. 14 - The right to the highest attainable standard of health, E/C.12/2000/4, (2000). Par. 3 - 4. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E%2fC.12%2f2000%2f4&Lang=en

2016 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Costa Rica par. 45 (2016) - 2062

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-costa-rica-par-45-2016

Food policy CESCR Breastfeeding

45. The Committee recommends that the State party adopt the measures needed to promote exclusive breastfeeding in accordance with World Health Assembly resolutions, including by introducing breastfeeding breaks and ensuring support for breastfeeding in the workplace. It also encourages the State party to take the necessary steps to ensure that women of childbearing age have access to adequate food....

Text of the recommendation

45. The Committee recommends that the State party adopt the measures needed to promote exclusive breastfeeding in accordance with World Health Assembly resolutions, including by introducing breastfeeding breaks and ensuring support for breastfeeding in the workplace. It also encourages the State party to take the necessary steps to ensure that women of childbearing age have access to adequate food.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Concluding observations on the fifth periodic report of Costa Rica, E/C.12/CRI/CO/5, (2016). Par. 45. Available at: https://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=4slQ6QSmlBEDzFEovLCuW%2FlJb5himUu8z00PmnT%2BwQx%2B9J8SAyu4CC5wM75p5MNme4vrEAFQjFmDIYPkg2oz42o7PM2Tdr%2BCUXvcfpKkmG8UXJ1IO70nNukNgVf3y6FX

2000 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Colombia par. 47 and par. 49 (2000) - 2059

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-colombia-par-47-and-par-49-2000

Food policy Colombia CRC Food and nutrition security

47. While acknowledging the measures taken to improve the health status of children, in particular initiatives relating to the reduction of infant mortality, the Committee remains concerned about the persistence of regional disparities in access to health care and of high rates of malnutrition for children under five years of age and those of school age, especially in rural and...

Text of the recommendation

47. While acknowledging the measures taken to improve the health status of children, in particular initiatives relating to the reduction of infant mortality, the Committee remains concerned about the persistence of regional disparities in access to health care and of high rates of malnutrition for children under five years of age and those of school age, especially in rural and remote areas and, in particular, among children belonging to indigenous groups.

49. The Committee recommends that the State party continue taking effective measures to ensure access to basic health care and services for all children. More concerted efforts need to be taken to guarantee equal access to health care and to combat malnutrition, with special emphasis on children belonging to indigenous groups and children living in rural and remote areas, as well as in camps for internally displaced populations.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties under Article 44 of the Convention, CRC/C/15/Add.137, (2000). Par. 47; 49. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2f15%2fAdd.137&Lang=en

2010 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Colombia, Par. 21 (2010) - 2057

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-colombia-par-21-2010

Food policy Colombia CESCR Food and nutrition security

21. The Committee is concerned about the high malnutrition rate which affects a considerable number of children and women, in particular among internally displaced groups, as well as persons living in rural areas. The Committee firmly recommends that the State party adopt an effective national food policy to combat hunger and malnutrition, in particular among children, women, internally displaced persons...

Text of the recommendation

21. The Committee is concerned about the high malnutrition rate which affects a considerable number of children and women, in particular among internally displaced groups, as well as persons living in rural areas. The Committee firmly recommends that the State party adopt an effective national food policy to combat hunger and malnutrition, in particular among children, women, internally displaced persons and persons living in rural areas.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Consideration of reports submitted by States Parties under Articles 16 and 17 of the Covenant, E/C.12/COL/CO/5, (2010). Par. 21. Available at: http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E%2fC.12%2fCOL%2fCO%2f5&Lang=en

2015 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Colombia, par. 17 and par. 18 (2015) - 2055

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-colombia-par-17-and-par-18-2015

Food policy Tobacco control Colombia CRC Industry interference

17. The Committee is concerned about the negative impact on children's rights of some of the activities conducted by business enterprises, in particular in the mining and tourism sectors. 18. In light of its general comment No. 16 (2013) on State obligations regarding the impact of the business sector on children's rights, the Committee recommends that the State party...(a) Examine and...

Text of the recommendation

17. The Committee is concerned about the negative impact on children's rights of some of the activities conducted by business enterprises, in particular in the mining and tourism sectors.

18. In light of its general comment No. 16 (2013) on State obligations regarding the impact of the business sector on children's rights, the Committee recommends that the State party...(a) Examine and adapt its legislative framework to ensure the legal accountability of business enterprises and their subsidiaries operating in or managed from the State party´s territory, especially in the mining and tourism sectors, regarding violations of children’s rights; (b) Require companies to undertake assessments, consultations and full public disclosure of the environmental, health-related and human rights impacts of their business activities and their plans to address such impacts; (c) Establish monitoring mechanisms for the investigation and redress of such abuses, with a view to improving accountability, transparency and the prevention of violations.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the combined fourth and fifth periodic reports of Colombia, CRC/C/COL/CO/4-5, (2015). Par. 17; 18 (a-c). Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fCOL%2fCO%2f4-5&Lang=en

2017 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Colombia par. 12 and par. 13 (b) and (c) (2017) - 2053

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-colombia-par-12-and-par-13-b-and-c-2017

Food policy Tobacco control Colombia CESCR Industry interference

12. While the Committee welcomes the efforts made by the State party in adopting a National Plan on Business and Human Rights, it is concerned that the Plan does not incorporate appropriate measures clearly establishing the principle of human rights due diligence in order to identify, prevent and mitigate the risk of violation of Covenant rights. 13. The Committee recommends...

Text of the recommendation

12. While the Committee welcomes the efforts made by the State party in adopting a National Plan on Business and Human Rights, it is concerned that the Plan does not incorporate appropriate measures clearly establishing the principle of human rights due diligence in order to identify, prevent and mitigate the risk of violation of Covenant rights.

13. The Committee recommends that, in revising the National Plan on Business and Human Rights, the State party: (a) Take appropriate legislative and administrative measures, including the incorporation of human rights due diligence, to ensure that business enterprises operating in the State party do not adversely affect the enjoyment of economic, social and cultural rights in the course of their work; (b) Establish effective mechanisms to guarantee the conducting of human rights due diligence by companies; (c) Strengthen existing mechanisms to investigate complaints against companies, and take effective measures to ensure victims’ access to effective remedies and to reparation or compensation.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Concluding observations on the sixth periodic report of Colombia E/C.12/COL/CO/6, (2017). Par. 12; 13. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E%2fC.12%2fCOL%2fCO%2f6&Lang=en

2017 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Colombia par. 57 and par. 58 (2017) - 2050

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-colombia-par-57-and-par-58-2017

Food policy Colombia CESCR Food and nutrition security

57. The Committee is concerned at the prevailing disparities in relation to the right to adequate food, specifically between the critical rates of malnutrition and food insecurity and the rising number of overweight or obese persons in some regions. The Committee is also concerned at the lack of adequate measures to support peasant and smallholder farmers, which has a negative...

Text of the recommendation

57. The Committee is concerned at the prevailing disparities in relation to the right to adequate food, specifically between the critical rates of malnutrition and food insecurity and the rising number of overweight or obese persons in some regions. The Committee is also concerned at the lack of adequate measures to support peasant and smallholder farmers, which has a negative impact on the enjoyment of the right to food (art. 11).

58. The Committee recommends that the State party develop, pursuant to the National Food Security and Nutrition Policy, a comprehensive national strategy for the protection and promotion of the right to adequate food in order to address food insecurity throughout its national territory and to promote healthier diets.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Concluding observations on the sixth periodic report of Colombia E/C.12/COL/CO/6, (2017). Par. 57; 58. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E%2fC.12%2fCOL%2fCO%2f6&Lang=en

2015 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Chile par. 63 (2015) - 2048

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-chile-par-63-2015

Tobacco control Other Health-related issues Chile CRC Education and information

63. The Committee recommends that the State party address the incidence of alcohol abuse and drug abuse by children by, inter alia, providing them with accurate and objective information and life skills education on preventing substance abuse, including tobacco and alcohol abuse, and develop accessible and youth-friendly drug - dependence treatment and harm-reduction services....

Text of the recommendation

63. The Committee recommends that the State party address the incidence of alcohol abuse and drug abuse by children by, inter alia, providing them with accurate and objective information and life skills education on preventing substance abuse, including tobacco and alcohol abuse, and develop accessible and youth-friendly drug - dependence treatment and harm-reduction services.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the combined fourth and fifth periodic reports of Peru, CRC/C/PER/CO/4-5, (2015). Par. 63. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fCHL%2fCO%2f4-5&Lang=en

2015 - Commitee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Chile par. 25 (2015) - 2045

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/commitee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-chile-par-25-2015

Food policy Other Health-related issues Chile CESCR Fiscal measures Education and information

25. The Committee is concerned at the rising rate of obesity due to the nutritional changes occurring in the State party and the lack of comprehensive measures currently addressing this problem (art. 11). The Committee recommends that the State party should intensify its efforts to devise a comprehensive national strategy for the protection and promotion of the right to adequate food,...

Text of the recommendation

25. The Committee is concerned at the rising rate of obesity due to the nutritional changes occurring in the State party and the lack of comprehensive measures currently addressing this problem (art. 11).

The Committee recommends that the State party should intensify its efforts to devise a comprehensive national strategy for the protection and promotion of the right to adequate food, which promotes healthier diets and incorporates aspects related to trade, territorial planning, education and fiscal policy, and is developed with the participation of all the stakeholders involved. The Committee refers the State party to its general comment No. 12 (1999) on the right to adequate food and the Voluntary Guidelines to support the progressive realization of the right to adequate food in the context of national food security, adopted by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Concluding observations on the fourth periodic report of Chile, E/C.12/CHL/CO/4, (2015). Par. 25. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E%2fC.12%2fCHL%2fCO%2f4&Lang=en

2002 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Chile par. 40 (b) (2002) - 2042

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-chile-par-40-b-2002

Food policy Other Health-related issues Chile CRC Education and information Breastfeeding Environment and health

40. The Committee recommends that the State party: (...) (b) In order to prevent child mortality and morbidity and lower the maternal mortality rate, provide adequate antenatal and postnatal health-care services and develop campaigns to inform parents about basic child health and nutrition, the advantages of breastfeeding, hygiene and environmental sanitation, family planning and reproductive health, especially in rural areas. ...

Text of the recommendation

40. The Committee recommends that the State party:

(...) (b) In order to prevent child mortality and morbidity and lower the maternal mortality rate, provide adequate antenatal and postnatal health-care services and develop campaigns to inform parents about basic child health and nutrition, the advantages of breastfeeding, hygiene and environmental sanitation, family planning and reproductive health, especially in rural areas.


Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties under Article 44 of the Convention, CRC/C/15/Add.173, (2002). Par. 40 (b). Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2f15%2fAdd.173&Lang=en

2007 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Chile par. 68 (b) (2007) - 2040

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-chile-par-68-b-2007

Food policy Other Health-related issues Chile CRC Education and information Food and nutrition security

68. The Committee recommends that the State party: (...) (b) Provide street children with recovery and social reintegration services, taking into account their views in accordance with article 12 of the Convention, taking due account of gender and ethnic aspects, and provide them with adequate nutrition, housing, and necessary health-care and educational opportunities;...

Text of the recommendation

68. The Committee recommends that the State party: (...)

(b) Provide street children with recovery and social reintegration services, taking into account their views in accordance with article 12 of the Convention, taking due account of gender and ethnic aspects, and provide them with adequate nutrition, housing, and necessary health-care and educational opportunities;

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties under Article 44 of the Convention, CRC/C/CHL/CO/3, (2017). Par. 68 (b). Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fCHL%2fCO%2f3&Lang=en

2007 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Chile par. 53 and par. 54 (2007) - 2037

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-chile-par-53-and-par-54-2007

Other Health-related issues Chile CRC N/A

53. The Committee welcomes the substantially increased budget allocations in the public expenditure for health through the AUGE system and the attempts that have been made to improve access for low-income families by providing guaranteed medical treatment for several conditions relating specifically to the health of children. The Committee also notes the advances made in reducing infant mortality and the...

Text of the recommendation

53. The Committee welcomes the substantially increased budget allocations in the public expenditure for health through the AUGE system and the attempts that have been made to improve access for low-income families by providing guaranteed medical treatment for several conditions relating specifically to the health of children. The Committee also notes the advances made in reducing infant mortality and the high vaccination rates among children. The Committee however notes that further efforts need to be undertaken in order to ensure access to health services in practice among indigenous peoples, low-income and rural population. Finally, the Committee is concerned about nutritional problems leading to obesity.

54. The Committee recommends that the State party continue and provide further resources for the AUGE health system and enhance the access to medical services in rural areas, among low-income families and indigenous peoples. The Committee recommends that the State party increase and strengthen strategies to promote the use of indigenous traditional medicine. Finally the Committee recommends the State party to take necessary measures to reduce and prevent the incidence of obesity among children.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties under Article 44 of the Convention, CRC/C/CHL/CO/3, (2017). Par. 53-54. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fCHL%2fCO%2f3&Lang=en

2015 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Chile par. 58 and par. 59 (2015) - 2034

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-chile-par-58-and-par-59-2015

Food policy Chile CRC Food marketing regulations Physical activity

58. The Committee is still concerned about the lack of an integral system of health care for all children up to age 18, the difference in quality between public and private health-care services, the increased medication of children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and both the undernourishment and obesity levels among children. ...

Text of the recommendation

58. The Committee is still concerned about the lack of an integral system of health care for all children up to age 18, the difference in quality between public and private health-care services, the increased medication of children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and both the undernourishment and obesity levels among children.

59. The Committee reiterates some of its previous recommendations (see CRC/C/CHL/CO/3) and draws the State party’s attention to its general comment No. 15 (2013) on the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health, and recommends that the State party: (...) (c) Strengthen measures to address underweight and overweight among children, promote a healthy lifestyle that includes physical activity and take the necessary measures to reduce the pressure of food marketing on children , in particular with regard to food high in fat, sugar and salt;

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the combined fourth and fifth periodic reports of Chile, CRC/C/CHL/CO/4-5, (2015). Par. 58-59 c). Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fCHL%2fCO%2f4-5&Lang=en

2009 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Brazil, Section D (2009) - 2032

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-brazil-section-d-2009

Tobacco control Brazil CESCR Smoke and emissions’ free environments (SFE) Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS)

30. The Committee notes with concern that it is still permissible to promote the use of tobacco through advertising in the State party and that, while the use of tobacco-derived products is banned in publicly accessible areas, smoking is permitted in areas specially designed for the purpose. The Committee notes, however, that the State party has taken important steps to...

Text of the recommendation

30. The Committee notes with concern that it is still permissible to promote the use of tobacco through advertising in the State party and that, while the use of tobacco-derived products is banned in publicly accessible areas, smoking is permitted in areas specially designed for the purpose. The Committee notes, however, that the State party has taken important steps to reduce the threat tobacco poses for life, health, the environment and the general population by ratifying the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and developing public policies to reduce tobacco use. (art. 12, par. 1)

The Committee recommends that the State party take measures to ban the promotion of tobacco products and enact legislation to ensure that all enclosed public environments are completely free of tobacco.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Considerations of reports submitted by States parties under articles 16 and 17 of the Covenant, E/C.12/BRA/CO/2, (2009). Par. 30. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E/C.12/BRA/CO/2&Lang=En

2002 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Brazil, par. 393,394,395,396 (2002) - 2030

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-brazil-par-393-394-395-396-2002

Food policy Brazil Food production Food and nutrition security

393. Side by side with this deficiency picture in Brazil, an epidemic of obesity or other types of lipaemia and related cardiovascular diseases has been detected. This is an unprecedented epidemiological situation. According to a 1996 report issued jointly by the Inter‑American Development Bank and the World Health Organization, there has been an increase in obesity and chronic diseases associated...

Text of the recommendation

393. Side by side with this deficiency picture in Brazil, an epidemic of obesity or other types of lipaemia and related cardiovascular diseases has been detected. This is an unprecedented epidemiological situation. According to a 1996 report issued jointly by the Inter‑American Development Bank and the World Health Organization, there has been an increase in obesity and chronic diseases associated with food intake, particularly in lower socio‑economic groups, which account for 50 per cent of this increase among adults. Obesity in the Brazilian population is becoming considerably more common than child malnutrition, pointing to an epidemiological transition process which is being accorded due attention by public health authorities. Cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of death and incapacity among adults and the elderly and account for 34 per cent of deaths in Brazil. To a large extent, these diseases are associated with obesity and with improper eating habits and lifestyles. (...)

394. Adding to these problems, inadequate eating habits also pose a serious challenge. In the different regions of the country, popular culture holds onto food and eating traditions whose nutrition, therapeutic properties, and requirements and taboos of foods or food combinations can be of dubious value.

395. It should be added that there is a proliferation of fast food establishments, which may be conducive to less than healthy habits, and an increasing use of pre‑cooked or fast‑cooking food whose nutritional quality may be compromised if modern production techniques are not used. Another factor that influences eating habits is the significant volume of daily meals served to different segments of the population. For example, 36 million meals are served daily in schools, 300,000 in the armed forces and 10 million to workers covered by the Workers Food Program‑PAT.

395. Through massive advertising, the food industry and trade induce consumers to adopt new habits, often based on false or deceitful claims. A striking example of this is the premature stopping of breastfeeding over the last 40 years, owing to women’s new behaviour patterns and the advertising of industrialized infant food. With respect to food processing, which is subject to sanitary inspection, it is important to take into account the quantity of food products and industries currently in existence. In Brazil there are about 100,000 licensed products and 20,000 registered food companies. Another consideration is the growing influx of imported foods, which requires greater attention from health inspectors. In the Brazilian view, the role of food health inspection is to protect the health of the population from risks stemming from the consumption of irregular food products. The National Sanitary Vigilance Agency is responsible for monitoring compliance with technical norms and legislation applicable to food. It operates by in loco checking of hygienic and sanitary practices adopted by establishments that produce or sell foodstuffs. It is also charged with adopting the pertinent measures in case of irregularities, to ensure that food products offered for consumption are in satisfactory condition. Basically, these norms refer to “sound manufacturing practices” and to food 30product identification and quality

Citation

Economic and Social Council, Implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Initial reports submitted by States parties under articles 16 and 17 of the Covenant, E/1990/5/Add.53, (2002). Par. 394- 396. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E%2f1990%2f5%2fAdd.53&Lang=en

2002 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Recommendation for Brazil, par. 406 (2002) - 2027

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-recommendation-for-brazil-par-406-2002

Food policy Brazil Education and information Breastfeeding

406. The promotion of healthy eating habits, starting with breastfeeding, will concur with the encouragement of healthy lifestyles, another major factor in promoting health. In this connection, emphasis is being placed on wide dissemination of knowledge about food and eating as well as on the prevention of nutritional problems, from malnutrition ‑ including specific deficiencies ‑ to obesity....

Text of the recommendation

406. The promotion of healthy eating habits, starting with breastfeeding, will concur with the encouragement of healthy lifestyles, another major factor in promoting health. In this connection, emphasis is being placed on wide dissemination of knowledge about food and eating as well as on the prevention of nutritional problems, from malnutrition ‑ including specific deficiencies ‑ to obesity.

Citation

Economic and Social Council, Implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Initial reports submitted by States parties under articles 16 and 17 of the Covenant, E/1990/5/Add.53, (2002). Pár. 406. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E%2f1990%2f5%2fAdd.53&Lang=en

2004 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, Recommendation for Brazil, par. 71 (2004) - 2025

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-recommendation-for-brazil-par-71-2004

Food policy Other Health-related issues Brazil CRC Education and information Food and nutrition security

71. It also welcomes the efforts made by the State party to stimulate bilingual education. However, the Committee is deeply concerned by the low standard of living of indigenous children, low educational opportunities and quality of health services, and malnutrition....

Text of the recommendation

71. It also welcomes the efforts made by the State party to stimulate bilingual education. However, the Committee is deeply concerned by the low standard of living of indigenous children, low educational opportunities and quality of health services, and malnutrition.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties under Article 44 of the Convention, CRC/C/15/Add.241, (2004). Par. 71. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2f15%2fAdd.241&Lang=en

2002 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Recommendation #15 Section I (2002) - 1717

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-general-recommendation-15-section-i-2002

Food policy CESCR Food and nutrition security Access to water

14. (...) Article 24, paragraph 2, of the Convention on the Rights of the Child requires States parties to combat disease and malnutrition “through the provision of adequate nutritious foods and clean drinking-water”....

Text of the recommendation

14. (...) Article 24, paragraph 2, of the Convention on the Rights of the Child requires States parties to combat disease and malnutrition “through the provision of adequate nutritious foods and clean drinking-water”.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment No. 15 - The right to water, E/C.12/2002/11, (2002). Par. 4. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E%2fC.12%2f2002%2f11&Lang=en

2005 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Recommendation #16 par. 4 (2005) - 1714

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-general-recommendation-16-par-4-2005

Other Health-related issues CESCR N/A

4. The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) has taken particular note of factors negatively affecting the equal right of men and women to the enjoyment of economic, social and cultural rights in many of its general comments, including those on the right to adequate housing, the right to adequate food, the right to education, the right to...

Text of the recommendation

4. The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) has taken particular note of factors negatively affecting the equal right of men and women to the enjoyment of economic, social and cultural rights in many of its general comments, including those on the right to adequate housing, the right to adequate food, the right to education, the right to the highest attainable standard of health, and the right to water.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General comment No. 16 - The equal right of men and women to the enjoyment of all economic, socialand cultural rights, E/C.12/2005/4, (2005). Par. 4. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E%2fC.12%2f2005%2f4&Lang=en

2009 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Recommendation #21 par. 16 (2009) - 1711

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-general-recommendation-21-par-16-2009

Other Health-related issues CESCR N/A

16. (e) The way in which rights are implemented may also have an impact on cultural life and cultural diversity. The Committee wishes to stress in this regard the need to take into account, as far as possible, cultural values attached to, inter alia, food and food consumption, the use of water, the way health and education services are provided...

Text of the recommendation

16. (e) The way in which rights are implemented may also have an impact on cultural life and cultural diversity. The Committee wishes to stress in this regard the need to take into account, as far as possible, cultural values attached to, inter alia, food and food consumption, the use of water, the way health and education services are provided and the way housing is designed and constructed.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General comment No. 21 - Right of everyone to take part in cultural life, E/C.12/GC/21, (2009). Par. 16; e). Available at: http://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=4slQ6QSmlBEDzFEovLCuW1a0Szab0oXTdImnsJZZVQc5ReG9hKvddWC2ML5U76E63nT%2beY%2btmSVIRS0ynN0q4EDmpjJye7rC1DxEtC%2fGxx7WLBcmnxGwpWSXy0fmnHDS

2016 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Recommendation #22 par. 7 (2016) - 1708

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-general-recommendation-22-par-7-2016

Food policy CESCR Education and information Food and nutrition security Access to water

7. It extends beyond sexual and reproductive health care to the underlying determinants of sexual and reproductive health, including access to safe and potable water, adequate sanitation, adequate food and nutrition, adequate housing, safe and healthy working conditions and environment, health-related education and information, and effective protection from all forms of violence, torture and discrimination and other human rights violations...

Text of the recommendation

7. It extends beyond sexual and reproductive health care to the underlying determinants of sexual and reproductive health, including access to safe and potable water, adequate sanitation, adequate food and nutrition, adequate housing, safe and healthy working conditions and environment, health-related education and information, and effective protection from all forms of violence, torture and discrimination and other human rights violations that have a negative impact on the right to sexual and reproductive health.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General comment No. 22 - on the right to sexual and reproductive health, E/C.12/GC/22, (2016), Par. 7. Available at: http://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=4slQ6QSmlBEDzFEovLCuW1a0Szab0oXTdImnsJZZVQfQejF41Tob4CvIjeTiAP6sGFQktiae1vlbbOAekmaOwDOWsUe7N8TLm%2bP3HJPzxjHySkUoHMavD%2fpyfcp3Ylzg

2017 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Recommendation #24 par. 21 (2017) - 1703

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-general-recommendation-24-par-21-2017

Food policy CESCR Industry interference

2. The Committee has previously considered the growing impact of business activities on the enjoyment of specific Covenant rights relating to health, housing, food, water, social security, the right to work, the right to just and favourable conditions of work and the right to form and join trade unions....

Text of the recommendation

2. The Committee has previously considered the growing impact of business activities on the enjoyment of specific Covenant rights relating to health, housing, food, water, social security, the right to work, the right to just and favourable conditions of work and the right to form and join trade unions.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General comment No. 24 - on State obligations under the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights in the context of business activities, E/C.12/GC/24, (2017), Par. 2. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E%2fC.12%2fGC%2f24&Lang=en

2017 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Recommendation #24 par. 19 (2017) - 1701

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-general-recommendation-24-par-19-2017

Food policy Tobacco control CESCR Food marketing regulations Breastfeeding Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS)

19. The obligation to protect sometimes necessitates direct regulation and intervention. States parties should consider measures such as restricting marketing and advertising of certain goods and services in order to protect public health, such as of tobacco products, in line with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and of breast-milk substitutes, in accordance with the 1981 International Code of Marketing...

Text of the recommendation

19. The obligation to protect sometimes necessitates direct regulation and intervention. States parties should consider measures such as restricting marketing and advertising of certain goods and services in order to protect public health, such as of tobacco products, in line with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and of breast-milk substitutes, in accordance with the 1981 International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes and subsequent resolutions of the World Health Assembly; (...)

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General comment No. 24 - on State obligations under the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights in the context of business activities, E/C.12/GC/24, (2017), Par. 19. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E%2fC.12%2fGC%2f24&Lang=en

2005 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Recommendation #17 par. 39 (2005) - 1699

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-general-recommendation-17-par-39-2005

Other Health-related issues CESCR N/A

39. In general comment No. 3 (1990), the Committee confirmed that States parties have a core obligation to ensure the satisfaction of minimum essential levels of each of the rights enunciated in the Covenant. In conformity with other human rights instruments, as well as international agreements on the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from one’s scientific, literary...

Text of the recommendation

39. In general comment No. 3 (1990), the Committee confirmed that States parties have a core obligation to ensure the satisfaction of minimum essential levels of each of the rights enunciated in the Covenant. In conformity with other human rights instruments, as well as international agreements on the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from one’s scientific, literary or artistic productions, the Committee considers that article 15, paragraph 1 (c), of the Covenant entails at least the following core obligations, which are of immediate effect: (e)To strikean adequate balance between the effective protection of the moral and material interests of authors and States parties’ obligations in relation to the rights to food, health and education, as well as the rights to take part in cultural life and to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications, or any other right recognized in the Covenant.

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment No. 17 - The right of everyone to benefit from the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he or she is the author (article 15, paragraph 1 (c), of the Covenant, E/C.12/GC/1712, (2005). Par. 39; e). Available at: http://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=4slQ6QSmlBEDzFEovLCuW1a0Szab0oXTdImnsJZZVQcMZjyZlUmZS43h49u0CNAuJIjwgfzCL8JQ1SHYTZH6jsZteqZOpBtECZh96hyNh%2F%2FHW6g3fYyiDXsSgaAmIP%2BP

2005 - Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Recommendation #17 par. 35 (2005) - 1697

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-general-recommendation-17-par-35-2005

Other Health-related issues CESCR N/A

35. States parties should therefore ensure that their legal or other regimes for the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from one’s scientific, literary or artistic productions constitute no impediment to their ability to comply with their core obligations in relation to the rights to food, health and education, as well as to take part in cultural life...

Text of the recommendation

35. States parties should therefore ensure that their legal or other regimes for the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from one’s scientific, literary or artistic productions constitute no impediment to their ability to comply with their core obligations in relation to the rights to food, health and education, as well as to take part in cultural life and to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications, or any other right enshrined in the Covenant. Ultimately, intellectual property is a social product and has a social function. States parties thus have a duty to prevent unreasonably high costs for access to essential medicines, plant seeds or other means of food production, or for schoolbooks and learning materials, from undermining the rights of large segments of the population to health, food and education.(...)

Citation

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment No. 17 - The right of everyone to benefit from the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he or she is the author (article 15, paragraph 1 (c), of the Covenant, E/C.12/GC/1712, (2005). Par. 35. Available at: http://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=4slQ6QSmlBEDzFEovLCuW1a0Szab0oXTdImnsJZZVQcMZjyZlUmZS43h49u0CNAuJIjwgfzCL8JQ1SHYTZH6jsZteqZOpBtECZh96hyNh%2F%2FHW6g3fYyiDXsSgaAmIP%2BP

2003 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Recommendation #4 Section III (2003) - 1695

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-general-recommendation-4-section-iii-2003

Food policy Other Health-related issues CRC Education and information

26. adolescents have the right to access adequate information essential for their health and development and for their ability to participate meaningfully in society. It is the obligation of States parties to ensure that all adolescents girls and boys, both in and out of school, are provided with, and not denied, accurate and appropriate information on how to protect their...

Text of the recommendation

26. adolescents have the right to access adequate information essential for their health and development and for their ability to participate meaningfully in society. It is the obligation of States parties to ensure that all adolescents girls and boys, both in and out of school, are provided with, and not denied, accurate and appropriate information on how to protect their health and development and practise healthy behaviours. This should include information on the use and abuse, of tobacco, alcohol and other substances, safe and respectful social and sexual behaviours, diet and physical activity.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, General comment No. 4 - adolescents health and development in the context of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, CRC/GC/2003/4, (2003). Par. 26. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fGC%2f2003%2f4&Lang=en

2003 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Recommendation #4 Section II (2003) - 1693

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-general-recommendation-4-section-ii-2003-2

Other Health-related issues CRC Environment and health

14. The health and development of adolescents are strongly determined by the environments in which they live. Creating a safe and supportive environment entails addressing attitudes and actions of both the immediate environment of the adolescents - family, peers, schools and services - as well as the wider environment created by, inter alia, community and religious leaders, the media, national...

Text of the recommendation

14. The health and development of adolescents are strongly determined by the environments in which they live. Creating a safe and supportive environment entails addressing attitudes and actions of both the immediate environment of the adolescents - family, peers, schools and services - as well as the wider environment created by, inter alia, community and religious leaders, the media, national and local policies and legislation. (...)

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, General comment No. 4 - adolescents health and development in the context of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, CRC/GC/2003/4, (2003). Par. 14. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fGC%2f2003%2f4&Lang=en

2003 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Recommendation #4 Section I (2003) - 1691

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-general-recommendation-4-section-i-2003

Tobacco control CRC Education and information

10. The right of adolescents to access appropriate information is crucial if States parties are to promote cost-effective measures, including through laws, policies and programmes, with regard to numerous health-related situations, including those covered in articles 24 and 33 such as family planning, prevention of accidents, protection from harmful traditional practices, including early marriages and female genital mutilation, and...

Text of the recommendation

10. The right of adolescents to access appropriate information is crucial if States parties are to promote cost-effective measures, including through laws, policies and programmes, with regard to numerous health-related situations, including those covered in articles 24 and 33 such as family planning, prevention of accidents, protection from harmful traditional practices, including early marriages and female genital mutilation, and the abuse of alcohol, tobacco and other harmful substances.


Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, General comment No. 4 - adolescents health and development in the context of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, CRC/GC/2003/4, (2003). Par. 10. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fGC%2f2003%2f4&Lang=en

2003 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Recommendation #4 Section II (2003) - 1688

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-general-recommendation-4-section-ii-2003

Food policy Tobacco control CRC Food marketing regulations Industry interference Education and information Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS)

25. The Committee is concerned about the influence exerted on adolescents health behaviours by the marketing of unhealthy products and lifestyles. In line with article 17 of the Convention, States parties are urged to protect adolescents from information that is harmful to their health and development, while underscoring their right to information and material from diverse national and international sources....

Text of the recommendation

25. The Committee is concerned about the influence exerted on adolescents health behaviours by the marketing of unhealthy products and lifestyles. In line with article 17 of the Convention, States parties are urged to protect adolescents from information that is harmful to their health and development, while underscoring their right to information and material from diverse national and international sources. States parties are therefore urged to regulate or prohibit information on and marketing of substances such as alcohol and tobacco, particularly when it targets Children and/or adolescents.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, General comment No. 4 - adolescents health and development in the context of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, CRC/GC/2003/4, (2003). Par. 25. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fGC%2f2003%2f4&Lang=en

2001 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Recommendation #1 par. 9 (2001) - 1685

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-general-recommendation-1-par-9-2001

Other Health-related issues CRC Education and information

9. Basic skills include not only literacy and numeracy but also life skills such as the ability to make well-balanced decisions; to resolve conflicts in a non‑violent manner; and to develop a healthy lifestyle, good social relationships and responsibility, critical thinking, creative talents, and other abilities which give children the tools needed to pursue their options in life....

Text of the recommendation

9. Basic skills include not only literacy and numeracy but also life skills such as the ability to make well-balanced decisions; to resolve conflicts in a non‑violent manner; and to develop a healthy lifestyle, good social relationships and responsibility, critical thinking, creative talents, and other abilities which give children the tools needed to pursue their options in life.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Comment no. 1 - Article 29, CRC/GC/2001/1, (2001). Par. 9. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fGC%2f2001%2f1&Lang=en

2007 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Recommendation #9, par. 53 (2007) - 1682

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-general-recommendation-9-par-53-2007

Food policy Other Health-related issues CRC Nutritional surveillance Education and information Breastfeeding

53. The Committee recommends that States parties introduce and strengthen prenatal care for children and ensure adequate quality of the assistance given during the delivery. It also recommends that States parties provide adequate post-natal health-care services and develop campaigns to inform parents and others caring for the child about basic child healthcare and nutrition. In this regard, the Committee also...

Text of the recommendation

53. The Committee recommends that States parties introduce and strengthen prenatal care for children and ensure adequate quality of the assistance given during the delivery. It also recommends that States parties provide adequate post-natal health-care services and develop campaigns to inform parents and others caring for the child about basic child healthcare and nutrition. In this regard, the Committee also recommends that the States partiescontinue to cooperate and seek technical assistance with, among others, WHO and UNICEF.


Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, GENERAL COMMENT No. 9 - The rights of children with disabilities, CRC/C/GC/9, (2007). Par. 53. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fGC%2f9&Lang=en

2007 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Recommendation #10, par. 16 (2007) - 1679

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-general-recommendation-10-par-16-2007

Other Health-related issues CRC N/A

16. One of the most important goals of the implementation of CRC is to promote the full and harmonious development of the child’s personality (...) In this regard, parents have the responsibility to provide the child, in a manner consistent with his evolving capacities, with appropriate direction and guidance in the exercise of her/his rights as recognized in the Convention....

Text of the recommendation

16. One of the most important goals of the implementation of CRC is to promote the full and harmonious development of the child’s personality (...) In this regard, parents have the responsibility to provide the child, in a manner consistent with his evolving capacities, with appropriate direction and guidance in the exercise of her/his rights as recognized in the Convention. In the light of these and other provisions of CRC, it is obviously not in the best interests of the child if he/she grows up in circumstances that may cause an increased or serious risk of becoming involved in criminal activities. Various measures should be taken for the full and equal implementation of the rights to an adequate standard of living (art. 27), to the highest attainable standard of health and access to health care (art. 24), to education (arts. 28 and 29), to protection from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse (art. 19), and from economic or sexual exploitation (arts. 32 and 34), and to other appropriate services for the care or protection of children.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Comment No. 10 - Children’s rights in juvenile justice, CRC/C/GC/10, (2007). Par. 16. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fGC%2f10&Lang=en

2009 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Recommendation #11, par. 25 (2009) - 1676

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-general-recommendation-11-par-25-2009

Food policy Other Health-related issues CRC Education and information Food and nutrition security

25. The Committee, through its extensive review of State party reports, notes that indigenous children are among those children who require positive measures in order to eliminate conditions that cause discrimination and to ensure their enjoyment of the rights of the Convention on equal level with other children. In particular, States parties are urged to consider the application of special...

Text of the recommendation

25. The Committee, through its extensive review of State party reports, notes that indigenous children are among those children who require positive measures in order to eliminate conditions that cause discrimination and to ensure their enjoyment of the rights of the Convention on equal level with other children. In particular, States parties are urged to consider the application of special measures in order to ensure that indigenous children have access to culturally appropriate services in the areas of health, nutrition, education, recreation and sports, social services, housing, sanitation and juvenile justice.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, General comment No. 11 - Indigenous children and their rights under the Convention, CRC/C/GC/11, (2009). Par. 25. Available at: http://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2fPPRiCAqhKb7yhsqIkirKQZLK2M58RF%2f5F0vHfIzasSO0EEdqdWmq9j7BREhPNv8rsqw5s1P9yZnbT0%2bVCtG7gTjfUoMHKWMhfZjxkzJvW8MwfhHmnb02XKphT

2011 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Recommendation #13, par. 47 (ii) (2011) - 1674

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-general-recommendation-13-par-47-ii-2011

Food policy Tobacco control Other Health-related issues CRC Schools and meals programs Education and information

47. Prevention measures include, but are not limited to: (a)For all stakeholders: (ii)Disseminating information regarding the Convention’s holistic and positive approach to child protection through creative public campaigns, schools and peer education, family,community and institutional educational initiatives, professionals and professional groups, NGOs and civil society; ...

Text of the recommendation

47. Prevention measures include, but are not limited to: (a)For all stakeholders:

(ii)Disseminating information regarding the Convention’s holistic and positive approach to child protection through creative public campaigns, schools and peer education, family,community and institutional educational initiatives, professionals and professional groups, NGOs and civil society;


Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, General comment No. 13 - The right of the child to freedom from all forms of violence, CRC/C/GC/13, (2011). Par. 47 (ii). Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fGC%2f13&Lang=en

2011 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Recommendation #13, par. 20 (2011) - 1671

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-general-recommendation-13-par-20-2011

Food policy CRC Food and nutrition security

20. Neglect or negligent treatment. Neglect means the failure to meet children’s physical and psychological needs, protect them from danger, or obtain medical, birth registration or other services when those responsible for children’s care have the means, knowledge and access to services to do so. It includes: (a)Physical neglect: failure to protect a child from harm, including through lack of...

Text of the recommendation

20. Neglect or negligent treatment. Neglect means the failure to meet children’s physical and psychological needs, protect them from danger, or obtain medical, birth registration or other services when those responsible for children’s care have the means, knowledge and access to services to do so. It includes: (a)Physical neglect: failure to protect a child from harm, including through lack of supervision, or failure to provide the child with basic necessities including adequate food, shelter, clothing and basic medical care;


Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, General comment No. 13 - The right of the child to freedom from all forms of violence, CRC/C/GC/13, (2011). Par. 20. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fGC%2f13&Lang=en

2003 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Recommendation #5, par. 22 (2003) - 1668

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-general-recommendation-5-par-22-2003

Other Health-related issues CRC N/A

22. The Committee emphasizes, in particular, the importance of ensuring that domestic law reflects the identified general principles in the Convention (arts. 2, 3, 6 and 12 (see paragraph 12 above)). The Committee welcomes the development of consolidated children’s rights statutes, which can highlight and emphasize the Convention’s principles. But the Committee emphasizes that it is crucial in addition that...

Text of the recommendation

22. The Committee emphasizes, in particular, the importance of ensuring that domestic law reflects the identified general principles in the Convention (arts. 2, 3, 6 and 12 (see paragraph 12 above)). The Committee welcomes the development of consolidated children’s rights statutes, which can highlight and emphasize the Convention’s principles. But the Committee emphasizes that it is crucial in addition that all relevant “sectoral” laws (on education, health, justice and so on) reflect consistently the principles and standards of the Convention.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, GENERAL COMMENT No. 5 - General measures of implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, CRC/GC/2003/5, (2003). Par. 22. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fGC%2f2003%2f5&Lang=en

2005 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Recommendation #6, par. 44 (2005) - 1665

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-general-recommendation-6-par-44-2005

Food policy Other Health-related issues CRC Nutritional surveillance Schools and meals programs Education and information Food and nutrition security

44. States should ensure that separated and unaccompanied children have a standard of living adequate for their physical, mental, spiritual and moral development. As provided in article 27 (2) of the Convention, States shall provide material assistance and support programmes, particularly with regard to nutrition, clothing and housing....

Text of the recommendation

44. States should ensure that separated and unaccompanied children have a standard of living adequate for their physical, mental, spiritual and moral development. As provided in article 27 (2) of the Convention, States shall provide material assistance and support programmes, particularly with regard to nutrition, clothing and housing.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, GENERAL COMMENT No. 6 - TREATMENT OF UNACCOMPANIED AND SEPARATED CHILDRENOUTSIDE THEIR COUNTRY OF ORIGIN, CRC/GC/2005/6, (2005). Par. 44. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fGC%2f2005%2f6&Lang=en

2007 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Recommendation #8, par. 13 (2007) - 1662

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-general-recommendation-8-par-13-2007

Other Health-related issues CRC N/A

13. The healthy development of children depends on parents and other adults for necessary guidance and direction, in line with children’s evolving capacities, to assist their growth towards responsible life in society. ...

Text of the recommendation

13. The healthy development of children depends on parents and other adults for necessary guidance and direction, in line with children’s evolving capacities, to assist their growth towards responsible life in society.


Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, General comment no. 8 - The right of the child to protection from corporal punishment and other cruelor degrading forms of punishment, CRC/C/GC/8, (2007). Par. 13. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fGC%2f8&Lang=en

2006 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Recommendation #7, par. 27 (a) and (b) (2006) - 1660

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-general-recommendation-7-par-27-a-and-b-2006

Food policy Other Health-related issues CRC Nutritional surveillance Education and information Food and nutrition security Breastfeeding Access to water

27. Health-care provision. States parties should ensure that all children have access to the highest attainable standard of health care and nutrition during their early years, in order to reduce infant mortality and enable children to enjoy a healthy start in life (art. 24). In particular: (a)States parties have a responsibility to ensure access to clean drinking water, adequate sanitation,...

Text of the recommendation

27. Health-care provision. States parties should ensure that all children have access to the highest attainable standard of health care and nutrition during their early years, in order to reduce infant mortality and enable children to enjoy a healthy start in life (art. 24). In particular: (a)States parties have a responsibility to ensure access to clean drinking water, adequate sanitation, appropriate immunization, good nutrition and medical services, which are essential for young children’s health, as is a stress‑free environment. Malnutrition and disease have long‑term impacts on children’s physical health and development. They affect children’s mental state, inhibiting learning and social participation and reducing prospects for realizing their potential. The same applies to obesity and unhealthy lifestyles; (b)States parties have a responsibility to implement children’s right to health by encouraging education in child health and development, including about the advantages of breastfeeding, nutrition, hygiene and sanitation.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, GENERAL COMMENT No. 7-Rev.1-Implementing child rights in early childhood, CRC/C/GC/7/, (2006). Par. 27 a); b). Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fGC%2f7%2fRev.1&Lang=en

2006 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Recommendation #7, par. 10 (2006) - 1658

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-general-recommendation-7-par-10-2006

Food policy Other Health-related issues CRC Education and information Food and nutrition security

10. Malnutrition and preventable diseases continue to be major obstacles to realizing rights in early childhood. Ensuring survival and physical health are priorities, but States parties are reminded that article 6 encompasses all aspects of development, and that a young child’s health and psychosocial well‑being are in many respects interdependent. Both may be put at risk by adverse living conditions,...

Text of the recommendation

10. Malnutrition and preventable diseases continue to be major obstacles to realizing rights in early childhood. Ensuring survival and physical health are priorities, but States parties are reminded that article 6 encompasses all aspects of development, and that a young child’s health and psychosocial well‑being are in many respects interdependent. Both may be put at risk by adverse living conditions, neglect, insensitive or abusive treatment and restricted opportunities for realizing human potential. Young children growing up in especially difficult circumstances require particular attention (see section VI below). The Committee reminds States parties (and others concerned) that the right to survival and development can only be implemented in a holistic manner, through the enforcement of all the other provisions of the Convention, including rights to health, adequate nutrition, social security, an adequate standard of living, a healthy and safe environment, education and play (arts. 24, 27, 28, 29 and 31), as well as through respect for the responsibilities of parents and the provision of assistance and quality services (arts. 5 and 18). From an early age, children should themselves be included in activities promoting good nutrition and a healthy and disease‑preventing lifestyle.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, GENERAL COMMENT No. 7-Rev.1-Implementing child rights in early childhood, CRC/C/GC/7/, (2006). Par. 10. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fGC%2f7%2fRev.1&Lang=en

2006 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Recommendation #7, par. 8 (2006) - 1655

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-general-recommendation-7-par-8-2006

Food policy CRC Food and nutrition security

8. Finally, research has highlighted the particular risks to young children from malnutrition, disease, poverty, neglect, social exclusion and a range of other adversities. It shows that proper prevention and intervention strategies during early childhood have the potential to impact positively on young children’s current well‑being and future prospects. Implementing child rights in early childhood is thus an effective way...

Text of the recommendation

8. Finally, research has highlighted the particular risks to young children from malnutrition, disease, poverty, neglect, social exclusion and a range of other adversities. It shows that proper prevention and intervention strategies during early childhood have the potential to impact positively on young children’s current well‑being and future prospects. Implementing child rights in early childhood is thus an effective way to help prevent personal, social and educational difficulties during middle childhood and adolescence (see general comment No. 4 (2003) on adolescents health and development).


Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, GENERAL COMMENT No. 7-Rev.1-Implementing child rights in early childhood, CRC/C/GC/7/, (2006). Par. 8. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fGC%2f7%2fRev.1&Lang=en

2013 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Recommendation #17, Section VI (2013) - 1652

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-general-recommendation-17-section-vi-2013

Food policy Other Health-related issues CRC N/A Food marketing regulations

Marketing and commercialization of play: The Committee is concerned that many children and their families are exposed to increasing levels of unregulated commercialization and marketing by toy and game manufacturers. Parents are pressured to purchase a growing number of products which may be harmful to their children’s development or are antithetical to creative play, such as products that promote television...

Text of the recommendation

Marketing and commercialization of play: The Committee is concerned that many children and their families are exposed to increasing levels of unregulated commercialization and marketing by toy and game manufacturers. Parents are pressured to purchase a growing number of products which may be harmful to their children’s development or are antithetical to creative play, such as products that promote television programmes with established characters and storylines which impede imaginative exploration; toys with microchips which render the child as a passive observer; kits with a pre-determined pattern of activity; toys that promote traditional gender stereotypes or early sexualization of girls; toys containing dangerous parts or chemicals; realistic war toys and games. Global marketing can also serve to weaken children’s participation in the traditional cultural and artistic life of their community.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Recommendation #17 on the right of the child to rest, leisure, play, recreational activities, cultural life and the arts (art. 31), Section VI., B), last paragraph, CRC/C/GC/1, (2013). Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fGC%2f17&Lang=en

2013 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Recommendation #16, par. 19 (2013) - 1650

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-general-recommendation-16-par-19-2013

Food policy Tobacco control Other Health-related issues CRC Food marketing regulations Industry interference Food and nutrition security Access to water Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS) Environment and health

19. The activities and operations of business enterprises can impact on the realization of article 6 in different ways. For example, environmental degradation and contamination arising from business activities can compromise children’s rights to health, food security and access to safe drinking water and sanitation. (...) The marketing to children of products such as cigarettes and alcohol as well as...

Text of the recommendation

19. The activities and operations of business enterprises can impact on the realization of article 6 in different ways. For example, environmental degradation and contamination arising from business activities can compromise children’s rights to health, food security and access to safe drinking water and sanitation. (...) The marketing to children of products such as cigarettes and alcohol as well as foods and drinks high in saturated fats, trans-fatty acids, sugar, salt or additives can have a long-term impact on their health. (...)

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, General comment No. 16 - State obligations regarding the impact of the business sector on children’s rights, CRC/C/GC/16, (2013). III.) C.The right to life, survival and development; 2nd paragraph. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fGC%2f16&Lang=en

2013 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Recommendation #16, par. 57 (2013) - 1647

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-general-recommendation-16-par-57-2013

Food policy Tobacco control Other Health-related issues CRC N/A Industry interference Breastfeeding FCTC ratification

57. States are also required to implement and enforce internationally agreed standards concerning children’s rights, health and business, including the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes and relevant subsequent World Health Assembly resolutions. The Committee is aware that the activities and operations of the pharmaceutical sector can have a...

Text of the recommendation

57. States are also required to implement and enforce internationally agreed standards concerning children’s rights, health and business, including the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes and relevant subsequent World Health Assembly resolutions. The Committee is aware that the activities and operations of the pharmaceutical sector can have a profound impact on the health of children. Pharmaceutical companies should be encouraged to improve the access, availability, acceptability and quality of medicines for children taking into consideration existing guidance. Furthermore, intellectual property rights should be applied in ways that promote the affordability of medicines.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, General comment No. 16 - State obligations regarding the impact of the business sector on children’s rights, CRC/C/GC/16, (2013). III.) Par. 57. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fGC%2f16&Lang=en

2013 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Recommendation #15, par. 46 (2013) - 1645

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-general-recommendation-15-par-46-2013

Food policy CRC

46. School feeding is desirable to ensure all pupils have access to a full meal every day, which can also enhance children’s attention for learning and increase school enrolment. The Committee recommends that this be combined with nutrition and health education, including setting up school gardens and training teachers to improve children’s nutrition and healthy eating habits....

Text of the recommendation

46. School feeding is desirable to ensure all pupils have access to a full meal every day, which can also enhance children’s attention for learning and increase school enrolment. The Committee recommends that this be combined with nutrition and health education, including setting up school gardens and training teachers to improve children’s nutrition and healthy eating habits.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, General comment No. 15 - on the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health (art. 24), CRC/C/GC/15, (2013). Par. 43. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fGC%2f15&Lang=en

2013 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Recommendation #15, par. 45 (2013) - 1643

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-general-recommendation-15-par-45-2013

Food policy CRC Nutritional surveillance Food and nutrition security

45. Adequate nutrition and growth monitoring in early childhood are particularly important. Where necessary, integrated management of severe acute malnutrition should be expanded through facility and community-based interventions, as well as treatment of moderate acute malnutrition, including therapeutic feeding interventions....

Text of the recommendation

45. Adequate nutrition and growth monitoring in early childhood are particularly important. Where necessary, integrated management of severe acute malnutrition should be expanded through facility and community-based interventions, as well as treatment of moderate acute malnutrition, including therapeutic feeding interventions.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, General comment No. 15 - on the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health (art. 24), CRC/C/GC/15, (2013). Par. 45. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fGC%2f15&Lang=en

2013 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Recommendation #15, par. 43 (2013) - 1641

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-general-recommendation-15-par-43-2013

Food policy CRC Food and nutrition security

43. Measures for fulfilling States’ obligations to ensure access to nutritionally adequate, culturally appropriate and safe food and to combat malnutrition will need to be adopted according to the specific context. Effective direct nutrition interventions for pregnant women include addressing anaemia and folic acid and iodine deficiency and providing calcium supplementation. Prevention and management of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, should be...

Text of the recommendation

43. Measures for fulfilling States’ obligations to ensure access to nutritionally adequate, culturally appropriate and safe food and to combat malnutrition will need to be adopted according to the specific context. Effective direct nutrition interventions for pregnant women include addressing anaemia and folic acid and iodine deficiency and providing calcium supplementation. Prevention and management of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, should be ensured for all women of reproductive age to benefit their health and ensure healthy foetal and infant development.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, General comment No. 15 - on the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health (art. 24), CRC/C/GC/15, (2013). Par. 43. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fGC%2f15&Lang=en

2013 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Recommendation #15, par. 47 (2013) - 1639

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-general-recommendation-15-par-47-2013

Food policy CRC Food marketing regulations Schools and meals programs Food and nutrition security

47. States should also address obesity in children, as it is associated with hypertension, early markers of cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, psychological effects, a higher likelihood of adult obesity, and premature death. Children’s exposure to “fast foods” that are high in fat, sugar or salt, energy-dense and micronutrient-poor, and drinks containing high levels of caffeine or other potentially harmful substances...

Text of the recommendation

47. States should also address obesity in children, as it is associated with hypertension, early markers of cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, psychological effects, a higher likelihood of adult obesity, and premature death. Children’s exposure to “fast foods” that are high in fat, sugar or salt, energy-dense and micronutrient-poor, and drinks containing high levels of caffeine or other potentially harmful substances should be limited. The marketing of these substances – especially when such marketing is focused on children – should be regulated and their availability in schools and other places controlled.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, General comment No. 15 - on the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health (art. 24), CRC/C/GC/15, (2013). Par. 47. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fGC%2f15&Lang=en

2013 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Recommendation #15, par. 59 (2013) - 1637

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-general-recommendation-15-par-59-2013

Food policy Tobacco control Other Health-related issues Schools and meals programs Physical activity Education and information Tobacco use

59. Children require information and education on all aspects of health to enable them to make informed choices in relation to their lifestyle and access to health services. Information and life skills education should address a broad range of health issues, including: healthy eating and the promotion of physical activity, sports and recreation; accident and injury prevention; sanitation, hand washing...

Text of the recommendation

59. Children require information and education on all aspects of health to enable them to make informed choices in relation to their lifestyle and access to health services. Information and life skills education should address a broad range of health issues, including: healthy eating and the promotion of physical activity, sports and recreation; accident and injury prevention; sanitation, hand washing and other personal hygiene practices; and the dangers of alcohol, tobacco and psychoactive substance use. Information and education should encompass appropriate information about children’s right to health, the obligations of Governments, and how and where to access health information and services, and should be provided as a core part of the school curriculum, as well as through health services and in other settings for children who are not in school. Materials providing information about health should be designed in collaboration with children and disseminated in a wide range of public settings.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, General comment No. 15 - on the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health (art. 24), CRC/C/GC/15, (2013). Par. 59. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fGC%2f15&Lang=en

2013 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Recommendation #15, par. 81 (2013) - 1635

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-general-recommendation-15-par-81-2013

Food policy Tobacco control CRC Food marketing regulations Industry interference Breastfeeding Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS) Tobacco use

81. Among other responsibilities and in all contexts, private companies should: refrain from engaging children in hazardous labour while ensuring they comply with the minimum age for child labour; comply with the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes and the relevant subsequent World Health Assembly resolutions; limit advertisement of energy-dense, micronutrient-poor foods, and drinks containing high levels of caffeine...

Text of the recommendation

81. Among other responsibilities and in all contexts, private companies should: refrain from engaging children in hazardous labour while ensuring they comply with the minimum age for child labour; comply with the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes and the relevant subsequent World Health Assembly resolutions; limit advertisement of energy-dense, micronutrient-poor foods, and drinks containing high levels of caffeine or other substances potentially harmful to children; and refrain from the advertisement, marketing and sale to children of tobacco, alcohol and other toxic substances or the use of child images.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, General comment No. 15 - on the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health (art. 24), CRC/C/GC/15, (2013). Par. 81. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fGC%2f15&Lang=en

2019 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on Cultural Rights, par. 73 (2019) - 1632

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-cultural-rights-par-73-2019

Food policy Tobacco control Food marketing regulations Schools and meals programs Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS)

73. Impact of commercial advertising and marketing practices on the enjoyment of cultural rights: The report by the Special Rapporteur on the impact of advertising and marketing practices on the enjoyment of cultural rights and its recommendation to ban all commercial advertising and marketing in schools resonated strongly with UNICEF. In 2016, it organized a workshop on children’s rights and...

Text of the recommendation

73. Impact of commercial advertising and marketing practices on the enjoyment of cultural rights: The report by the Special Rapporteur on the impact of advertising and marketing practices on the enjoyment of cultural rights and its recommendation to ban all commercial advertising and marketing in schools resonated strongly with UNICEF. In 2016, it organized a workshop on children’s rights and school marketing and started discussing possible guidelines for businesses on commercial free schools, based on the rights of the child. That work continues and in December 2017, UNICEF Netherlands organized an event on children’s rights in marketing to present the guidelines.

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, Interim Report on the Right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, A/HRC/35/21, (2019). Par. 73. Available at: https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G19/010/52/PDF/G1901052.pdf?OpenElement

2016 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, par. 41 (2016) - 1629

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-of-everyone-to-the-enjoyment-of-the-highest-attainable-standard-of-physical-and-mental-health-par-41-2016

Food policy Tobacco control Other Health-related issues N/A Industry interference

41. States have an obligation to protect against harm by third parties, including the private sector, and should work to ensure that private actors support the realization of the right to mental health, while fully understanding their role and duties in that respect....

Text of the recommendation

41. States have an obligation to protect against harm by third parties, including the private sector, and should work to ensure that private actors support the realization of the right to mental health, while fully understanding their role and duties in that respect.

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, Interim Report on the Right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, A/HRC/35/21, (2016). Par. 41. Available at: https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G17/076/04/PDF/G1707604.pdf?OpenElement

2016 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, par. 32 and par. 33 (2016) - 1627

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-of-everyone-to-the-enjoyment-of-the-highest-attainable-standard-of-physical-and-mental-health-par-32-and-par-33-2016

Food policy Tobacco control Food marketing regulations Physical activity Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS)

32. States can take other steps to facilitate the adoption of healthy lifestyles, with a view to ensuring policy coherence and effectiveness. One such measure is the adoption of laws limiting the marketing of tobacco and unhealthy food and beverages in the context of school-based sporting activities and at professional sporting events. Food advertising is frequently geared towards children, and...

Text of the recommendation

32. States can take other steps to facilitate the adoption of healthy lifestyles, with a view to ensuring policy coherence and effectiveness. One such measure is the adoption of laws limiting the marketing of tobacco and unhealthy food and beverages in the context of school-based sporting activities and at professional sporting events. Food advertising is frequently geared towards children, and much of it concerns foods with high levels of saturated fat, trans-fatty acids, sugar or salt (referred to hereinafter as “unhealthy foods”); this influences children’s preferences, purchase requests and consumption patterns. WHO has recommended that settings where children gather should be free from all forms of marketing of unhealthy foods; this includes settings in which sporting or cultural activities for children are held. Regulating or banning the advertising, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco30 and alcohol31 in these contexts is also recommended by WHO.

33. States should ban the advertising, promotion and sponsorship of all children’s sporting events, and other sporting events which could be attended by children, by manufacturers of alcohol, tobacco, and unhealthy foods. States should create guidelines that either restrict altogether, or minimize the impact of, the marketing of unhealthy foods, alcohol and tobacco in the context of all sporting events.

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, Interim Report on the Right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, A/HRC/32/33, (2016). Par. 32 & 33. Available at: https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G16/067/39/PDF/G1606739.pdf?OpenElement

2016 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, par. 6 (2016) - 1625

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-of-everyone-to-the-enjoyment-of-the-highest-attainable-standard-of-physical-and-mental-health-par-6-2016

Other Health-related issues N/A

6. Health is central to the Sustainable Development Goals, as it is both an outcome of and a path to achieving poverty reduction and sustainable development. Progress in health is both dependent on and a consequence of progress towards other Goals. Goal 3 is a specific commitment to “ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all ages”....

Text of the recommendation

6. Health is central to the Sustainable Development Goals, as it is both an outcome of and a path to achieving poverty reduction and sustainable development. Progress in health is both dependent on and a consequence of progress towards other Goals. Goal 3 is a specific commitment to “ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all ages”. Goal 3 is associated with nine targets, which include addressing child and maternal mortality and infectious and non communicable diseases. The Special Rapporteur welcomes recognition of the emerging burden of non communicable diseases, which represent the majority of deaths worldwide, with a disproportionate and devastating impact on the poor and marginalized. There are also cross cutting, systems oriented targets, including universal access to sexual and reproductive health care and universal health coverage.

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, Interim Report on the Right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, A/71/304, (2016). Par. 6. Available at: https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N16/250/84/PDF/N1625084.pdf?OpenElement

2016 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, par. 101 (a) and (b) - 1623

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-of-everyone-to-the-enjoyment-of-the-highest-attainable-standard-of-physical-and-mental-health-par-101-a-and-b

Food policy Tobacco control Food marketing regulations Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS)

101. The Special Rapporteur recommends that States: (a) Review all laws, policies, regulations and programmes relating to sport and healthy lifestyles for compliance with human rights standards, and immediately amend or remove those that are discriminatory in nature or conflict with human rights; (b) Ban the advertising, promotion and sponsorship of all children’s sporting events, and other sporting events...

Text of the recommendation

101. The Special Rapporteur recommends that States: (a) Review all laws, policies, regulations and programmes relating to sport and healthy lifestyles for compliance with human rights standards, and immediately amend or remove those that are discriminatory in nature or conflict with human rights; (b) Ban the advertising, promotion and sponsorship of all children’s sporting events, and other sporting events that could be attended by children, by manufacturers of alcohol, tobacco and unhealthy foods.

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, Interim Report on the Right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, A/HRC/32/33, (2016). Par. 101 (a-b). Available at: https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G16/067/39/PDF/G1606739.pdf?OpenElement

2016 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, par. 102 (2016) - 1621

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-of-everyone-to-the-enjoyment-of-the-highest-attainable-standard-of-physical-and-mental-health-par-102-2016

Tobacco control Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS)

102. Prevention cannot justify disproportionate infringements of adolescents’ rights, including their rights to privacy, bodily integrity and education. States are encouraged to continue to restrict and, when necessary, ban alcohol and tobacco advertising, which has too often targeted young people....

Text of the recommendation

102. Prevention cannot justify disproportionate infringements of adolescents’ rights, including their rights to privacy, bodily integrity and education. States are encouraged to continue to restrict and, when necessary, ban alcohol and tobacco advertising, which has too often targeted young people.

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, Interim Report on the Right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, A/HRC/32/32, (2016). Par. 102. Available at: https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G16/067/53/PDF/G1606753.pdf?OpenElement

2016 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, par. 99 (2016) - 1619

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-of-everyone-to-the-enjoyment-of-the-highest-attainable-standard-of-physical-and-mental-health-par-99-2016

Tobacco control Tobacco use

99. States should adopt appropriate measures to protect children from illicit drug use and involvement in the illicit drug trade. However, this must be read in the context of the protections afforded by the Convention on the Rights of the Child and other human rights obligations. Almost all States have obligations under the three United Nations drug control conventions, which...

Text of the recommendation

99. States should adopt appropriate measures to protect children from illicit drug use and involvement in the illicit drug trade. However, this must be read in the context of the protections afforded by the Convention on the Rights of the Child and other human rights obligations. Almost all States have obligations under the three United Nations drug control conventions, which must be read in conformity with concurrent human rights obligations. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control contains specific provisions aimed at the protection of children and young people, and which complement the right to health.

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, Interim Report on the Right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, A/HRC/32/32, (2016). Par. 99. Available at: https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G16/067/53/PDF/G1606753.pdf?OpenElement

2016 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, par. 36 (2016) - 1617

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-of-everyone-to-the-enjoyment-of-the-highest-attainable-standard-of-physical-and-mental-health-par-36-2016

Food policy Tobacco control Other Health-related issues Food marketing regulations Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS) Environment and health

36. States must take legal, policy and other measures to address the underlying and social determinants of adolescents health, including: road and environmental safety; racial prejudice; access to education; persistence of forced and early marriage; corporal punishment; social, economic, political, cultural and legal barriers to health services, including sexual and reproductive health services; inadequate social protection; institutionalization; punitive drug laws;...

Text of the recommendation

36. States must take legal, policy and other measures to address the underlying and social determinants of adolescents health, including: road and environmental safety; racial prejudice; access to education; persistence of forced and early marriage; corporal punishment; social, economic, political, cultural and legal barriers to health services, including sexual and reproductive health services; inadequate social protection; institutionalization; punitive drug laws; absence of comprehensive sexuality education; criminalization of exposure, non-disclosure of HIV status and transmission of HIV; criminalization of same-sex relationships; and lax legal frameworks governing the sale of tobacco, alcohol and fast foods.

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, Interim Report on the Right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, A/HRC/32/32, (2016). Par. 36. Available at: https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G16/067/53/PDF/G1606753.pdf?OpenElement

2016 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, par. 87 (2016) - 1615

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-of-everyone-to-the-enjoyment-of-the-highest-attainable-standard-of-physical-and-mental-health-par-87-2016

Food policy Tobacco control Food marketing regulations Industry interference Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS)

87. Private entities, including transnational corporations, should ensure that their operations do not undermine the realization of individual health rights. In particular, companies that produce tobacco, food or beverages should abide by industry- or Government-led regulations on marketing products to children in the sporting context. Companies involved in major sporting events must also ensure that their operations meet human rights...

Text of the recommendation

87. Private entities, including transnational corporations, should ensure that their operations do not undermine the realization of individual health rights. In particular, companies that produce tobacco, food or beverages should abide by industry- or Government-led regulations on marketing products to children in the sporting context. Companies involved in major sporting events must also ensure that their operations meet human rights standards, and must fully implement the Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights69 — a responsibility shared with international sporting bodies.

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, Interim Report on the Right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, A/HRC/32/33, (2016). Par. 87. Available at: https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G16/067/39/PDF/G1606739.pdf?OpenElement

2017 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, par. 19 (2017) - 1613

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-of-everyone-to-the-enjoyment-of-the-highest-attainable-standard-of-physical-and-mental-health-par-19-2017

Food policy Tobacco control Other Health-related issues Industry interference Environment and health

19. Beyond the health sector, corrupt practices that have a direct impact on the right to health have occurred in other private sector companies, including private water companies, tobacco manufacturers, food and beverage manufacturers, car manufacturers and the natural resources extraction industry. Such practices include, for example, bribery of public officials and the manipulation of scientific research practices. In his...

Text of the recommendation

19. Beyond the health sector, corrupt practices that have a direct impact on the right to health have occurred in other private sector companies, including private water companies, tobacco manufacturers, food and beverage manufacturers, car manufacturers and the natural resources extraction industry. Such practices include, for example, bribery of public officials and the manipulation of scientific research practices. In his previous reports, the Special Rapporteur has highlighted how power asymmetries have given rise to the widespread prioritizing of specialized medicine over primary care and public health interventions, including poverty reduction, labour conditions and early childhood services (see A/HRC/35/21, paras. 21 26). Such asymmetries generate preferences for physical health care over mental health care; biomedical interventions over non biomedical interventions; the prioritization of certain disciplines that promote expensive biomedical technologies over social sciences in public health research agendas; and limited space for civil society participation in health policymaking.

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, Interim Report on the Right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, A/72/137, (2017). Par. 19. Available at: https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N17/214/96/PDF/N1721496.pdf?OpenElement

2017 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, par. 39 (2017) - 1611

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-of-everyone-to-the-enjoyment-of-the-highest-attainable-standard-of-physical-and-mental-health-par-39-2017

Food policy Tobacco control Industry interference Breastfeeding

39. The harmful effects of the tobacco industry and unhealthy foods industry has been covered up by manufacturers and industry lobbyists, including through sponsoring research to downplay links to health problems. Misinformation, pressure and bribery from private sector actors, including the food and beverage and breast milk substitute industries38 and the tobacco and the polluting industries, can interfere with the...

Text of the recommendation

39. The harmful effects of the tobacco industry and unhealthy foods industry has been covered up by manufacturers and industry lobbyists, including through sponsoring research to downplay links to health problems. Misinformation, pressure and bribery from private sector actors, including the food and beverage and breast milk substitute industries38 and the tobacco and the polluting industries, can interfere with the obligation of governments to adopt an appropriate legislative, regulatory and policy framework to promote and protect public health.

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, Interim Report on the Right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, A/72/137, (2017). Par. 39. Available at: https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N17/214/96/PDF/N1721496.pdf?OpenElement

2017 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, par. 3 (2017) - 1608

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-of-everyone-to-the-enjoyment-of-the-highest-attainable-standard-of-physical-and-mental-health-par-3-2017

Food policy Tobacco control Industry interference

3. In many countries health is among the most corrupt sectors. Health sector corruption, including for example the bribing of health officials and unofficial payments to health care providers, obstructs the ability of States to fulfil their right to health obligation and to guarantee available, accessible, acceptable and good quality health services, goods and facilities. Yet corruption affecting health also...

Text of the recommendation

3. In many countries health is among the most corrupt sectors. Health sector corruption, including for example the bribing of health officials and unofficial payments to health care providers, obstructs the ability of States to fulfil their right to health obligation and to guarantee available, accessible, acceptable and good quality health services, goods and facilities. Yet corruption affecting health also occurs in other sectors and industries, for example, the water sector, and the food and beverages, tobacco and other industries. Moreover, corruption has significant implications for equality and non discrimination since it has a particularly marked impact on the health of populations in situations of vulnerability and social exclusion, in particular those living in poverty and children.

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, Interim Report on the Right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, A/72/137, (2017). Par. 3. Available at: https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N17/214/96/PDF/N1721496.pdf?OpenElement

2016 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, par. 95 (2016) - 1599

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-of-everyone-to-the-enjoyment-of-the-highest-attainable-standard-of-physical-and-mental-health-par-95-2016

Tobacco control Tobacco use

95.. Adolescence is a period of risk-taking and experimentation with greater likelihood of initiation into substance use. adolescents+s are at higher risk of drug-related health harms, while substance use initiated in adolescence can more often lead to dependence than during adulthood. The most commonly used substances are alcohol, tobacco and solvents. Illicit drug use, in particular cannabis, is also common...

Text of the recommendation

95.. Adolescence is a period of risk-taking and experimentation with greater likelihood of initiation into substance use. adolescents+s are at higher risk of drug-related health harms, while substance use initiated in adolescence can more often lead to dependence than during adulthood. The most commonly used substances are alcohol, tobacco and solvents. Illicit drug use, in particular cannabis, is also common and in recent years unregulated novel psychoactive substances have become an important concern.

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, Interim Report on the Right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, A/HRC/32/32, (2016). Par. 95. Available at: https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G16/067/53/PDF/G1606753.pdf?OpenElement

2016 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, par. 3 (2016) - 1594

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-of-everyone-to-the-enjoyment-of-the-highest-attainable-standard-of-physical-and-mental-health-par-3-2016

Food policy Tobacco control Physical activity Food and nutrition security Tobacco use

3. In its 2011 resolution on the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases, the General Assembly, in reaffirming the right of everyone to the highest attainable standard of mental and physical health, acknowledged that the global burden and threat of non-communicable diseases constituted “one of the major challenges for development in the twenty-first century”. The General Assembly recognized that many...

Text of the recommendation

3. In its 2011 resolution on the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases, the General Assembly, in reaffirming the right of everyone to the highest attainable standard of mental and physical health, acknowledged that the global burden and threat of non-communicable diseases constituted “one of the major challenges for development in the twenty-first century”. The General Assembly recognized that many non-communicable diseases are linked to common risk factors, including tobacco use, harmful use of alcohol, an unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity. Non-communicable diseases have a disproportionate impact on women’s health and are the leading cause of death in women globally, killing around 18 million women a year.

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, Interim Report on the Right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, A/HRC/32/33, (2016). Par. 3. Available at: https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G16/067/39/PDF/G1606739.pdf?OpenElement

2016 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, par. 19 (2016) - 1571

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-of-everyone-to-the-enjoyment-of-the-highest-attainable-standard-of-physical-and-mental-health-par-19-2016

Food policy Tobacco control Other Health-related issues Food and nutrition security Access to water Tobacco use Environment and health

19. The right to health encompasses the underlying determinants of health, including its social and psychosocial determinants. The Sustainable Development Goals address many of these underlying determinants, from specific right to health entitlements found in the targets of Goal 3, such as road safety, harmful alcohol and tobacco use and environmental pollution, as well as other Goals and targets, including...

Text of the recommendation

19. The right to health encompasses the underlying determinants of health, including its social and psychosocial determinants. The Sustainable Development Goals address many of these underlying determinants, from specific right to health entitlements found in the targets of Goal 3, such as road safety, harmful alcohol and tobacco use and environmental pollution, as well as other Goals and targets, including on clean water and sanitation (Goal 6), education (Goal 4), food (Goal 2), decent work (Goal 8), reducing inequalities (Goal 10), gender equality (Goal 5), poverty reduction (Goal 1), climate change and access to energy (Goal 13), peace, justice and strong institutions (Goal 16) and violence (targets 5.2, 16.1 and 16.2).

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, Interim Report on the Right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, A/71/304, (2016). Par. 19. Available at: https://undocs.org/Home/Mobile?FinalSymbol=A%2F71%2F304&Language=E&DeviceType=Desktop

2013 - Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Recommendation #15, par. 44 (2013) - 1568

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-general-recommendation-15-par-44-2013

Food policy Tobacco control CRC Breastfeeding FCTC ratification

44. Exclusive breastfeeding for infants up to 6 months of age should be protected and promoted and breastfeeding should continue alongside appropriate complementary foods preferably until two years of age, where feasible. States’ obligations in this area are defined in the “protect, promote and support” framework, adopted unanimously by the World Health Assembly. States are required to introduce into domestic...

Text of the recommendation

44. Exclusive breastfeeding for infants up to 6 months of age should be protected and promoted and breastfeeding should continue alongside appropriate complementary foods preferably until two years of age, where feasible. States’ obligations in this area are defined in the “protect, promote and support” framework, adopted unanimously by the World Health Assembly. States are required to introduce into domestic law, implement and enforce internationally agreed standards concerning children’s right to health, including the International Code on Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes and the relevant subsequent World Health Assembly resolutions, as well as the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Special measures should be taken to promote community and workplace support for mothers in relation to pregnancy and breastfeeding and feasible and affordable childcare services; and compliance with the International Labour Organization Convention No. 183 (2000) concerning the revision of the Maternity Protection Convention (Revised), 1952.

Citation

Committee on the Rights of the Child, General comment No. 15 - on the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health (art. 24), CRC/C/GC/15, (2013). Par. 44. Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fGC%2f15&Lang=en

2020 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, par. 20 (2020) - 1566

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-of-everyone-to-the-enjoyment-of-the-highest-attainable-standard-of-physical-and-mental-health-par-20-2020

Food policy Packaging and labeling

The decision on which front-of-package labelling system should be adopted must be linked to its effectiveness to achieve public health goals and be in accordance with scientific evidence free from conflicts of interest available at the time. International human rights law promotes rational and rigorous policy-making that is based upon reliable data. Therefore, the appropriateness of measures to...

Text of the recommendation

The decision on which front-of-package labelling system should be adopted must be linked to its effectiveness to achieve public health goals and be in accordance with scientific evidence free from conflicts of interest available at the time. International human rights law promotes rational and rigorous policy-making that is based upon reliable data. Therefore, the appropriateness of measures to address diet-related NCDs risk factors, such as front-of-package warning labelling, should arise from the best available evidence in public health. To that effect, what is normatively required must evolve with changing understandings of science. States should use scientific knowledge in decision-making and policies, as they have a duty to make available and accessible to all persons all the best available applications of scientific evidence necessary to enjoy the highest attainable standard of health.

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right to health. Statement by the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to health on the adoption of front-of-package warning labelling to tackle NCDs, (2020). Par. 20. Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Health/SRRH_Statement_FOPL_NCDs_07242020.docx

2020 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, par. 10 (2020) - 1564

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-of-everyone-to-the-enjoyment-of-the-highest-attainable-standard-of-physical-and-mental-health-par-10-2020

Food policy Packaging and labeling Food marketing regulations Industry interference

In the context of unhealthy diets, the obligation to protect the right to health, inter alia, requires the regulation of the activities of non-State actors, such as the food and beverage industries, to ensure they convey accurate, easily understandable, transparent and comprehensible information on their products. In particular, States should develop regulations and intervene, for instance, to restrict marketing...

Text of the recommendation

In the context of unhealthy diets, the obligation to protect the right to health, inter alia, requires the regulation of the activities of non-State actors, such as the food and beverage industries, to ensure they convey accurate, easily understandable, transparent and comprehensible information on their products. In particular, States should develop regulations and intervene, for instance, to restrict marketing of food products with excessive amounts of critical nutrients in order to protect public health. Such regulations should be implemented and monitored through indicators and benchmarks.

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right to health. Statement by the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to health on the adoption of front-of-package warning labelling to tackle NCDs, (2020). Par. 10. Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Health/SRRH_Statement_FOPL_NCDs_07242020.docx

2020 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, par. 7 (2020) - 1562

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-of-everyone-to-the-enjoyment-of-the-highest-attainable-standard-of-physical-and-mental-health-par-7-2020

Food policy Packaging and labeling Food and nutrition security

The adoption and implementation of front-of-package warning labelling is a rights-compliant response. By delivering clear and complete information in a simple way, it encourages consumers to make informed decisions about their diets, without making additional efforts or requiring qualified knowledge. This allows individuals to decide what they want to eat according to their preferences, tastes and health status. At...

Text of the recommendation

The adoption and implementation of front-of-package warning labelling is a rights-compliant response. By delivering clear and complete information in a simple way, it encourages consumers to make informed decisions about their diets, without making additional efforts or requiring qualified knowledge. This allows individuals to decide what they want to eat according to their preferences, tastes and health status. At the same time, front-of-package warning labelling promotes healthy decisions, discourages the consumption of food products that can have a detrimental impact on health, and counteracts the effects of living in an obesogenic environment.

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right to health. Statement by the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to health on the adoption of front-of-package warning labelling to tackle NCDs, (2020). Par. 7. Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Health/SRRH_Statement_FOPL_NCDs_07242020.docx

2020 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, par. 5 (2020) - 1560

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-of-everyone-to-the-enjoyment-of-the-highest-attainable-standard-of-physical-and-mental-health-par-5-2020

Food policy Packaging and labeling Industry interference

The industry often has an interest in hindering the adoption of front-of-package warning labelling regulations by attempting to interfere or directly influencing government decision-making processes. Where States have effectively adopted front-of-package warning labelling regulations to promote public health, some companies have resorted to or threatened litigation. They have also drawn on other campaigns and tactics to delay and/or block implementation...

Text of the recommendation

The industry often has an interest in hindering the adoption of front-of-package warning labelling regulations by attempting to interfere or directly influencing government decision-making processes. Where States have effectively adopted front-of-package warning labelling regulations to promote public health, some companies have resorted to or threatened litigation. They have also drawn on other campaigns and tactics to delay and/or block implementation of these regulatory measures, to overturn them or diminish their effect. This constitutes an undue influence of corporations on government decision-making that should be addressed by States to ensure that regulations to prevent harm to people’s health, derived from the consumption of unhealthy foods and beverages, are driven by human rights and scientific evidence free from conflicts of interest.

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right to health. Statement by the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to health on the adoption of front-of-package warning labelling to tackle NCDs, (2020). Par. 5. Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Health/SRRH_Statement_FOPL_NCDs_07242020.docx

2020 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, par. 4 (2020) - 1558

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-of-everyone-to-the-enjoyment-of-the-highest-attainable-standard-of-physical-and-mental-health-par-4-2020

Food policy Food and nutrition security

The right to health is an inclusive right extending not only to timely and appropriate health care but also to the underlying determinants of health, such as an adequate supply of safe food and nutrition. States’ obligations therefore include ensuring equal access for all to nutritiously safe food as an underlying determinant of health. As adequate food is a human...

Text of the recommendation

The right to health is an inclusive right extending not only to timely and appropriate health care but also to the underlying determinants of health, such as an adequate supply of safe food and nutrition. States’ obligations therefore include ensuring equal access for all to nutritiously safe food as an underlying determinant of health. As adequate food is a human right in itself, States obligations include ensuring everyone’s access to the minimum essential food that is sufficient, nutritionally adequate and safe; this involves food in sufficient quantity and quality to satisfy individuals’ dietary needs, with a mix of nutrients for physical and mental growth, development and maintenance.

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right to health. Statement by the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to health on the adoption of front-of-package warning labelling to tackle NCDs, (2020). Par. 4. Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/en/statements/2020/07/statement-un-special-rapporteur-right-health-adoption-front-package-warning

2020 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, par. 2 (2020) - 1554

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-of-everyone-to-the-enjoyment-of-the-highest-attainable-standard-of-physical-and-mental-health-par-2-2020

Food policy Food and nutrition security

The right to health is an inclusive right extending not only to timely and appropriate health care but also to the underlying determinants of health, such as an adequate supply of safe food and nutrition. States’ obligations therefore include ensuring equal access for all to nutritiously safe food as an underlying determinant of health. As adequate food is a human...

Text of the recommendation

The right to health is an inclusive right extending not only to timely and appropriate health care but also to the underlying determinants of health, such as an adequate supply of safe food and nutrition. States’ obligations therefore include ensuring equal access for all to nutritiously safe food as an underlying determinant of health. As adequate food is a human right in itself, States obligations include ensuring everyone’s access to the minimum essential food that is sufficient, nutritionally adequate and safe; this involves food in sufficient quantity and quality to satisfy individuals’ dietary needs, with a mix of nutrients for physical and mental growth, development and maintenance.

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right to health. Statement by the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to health on the adoption of front-of-package warning labelling to tackle NCDs, (2020). Par. 2. Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/en/statements/2020/07/statement-un-special-rapporteur-right-health-adoption-front-package-warning

2016 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, par. 98 and 99 (2016) - 1552

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-to-food-par-98-and-99-2016

Food policy Tobacco control Other Health-related issues Fiscal measures Food production Industry interference Food and nutrition security Trade and investment FCTC ratification Environment and health

98. A holistic approach to nutrition requires national policymakers to create an environment conducive to nutritious, healthy diets, including through education, and dietary guidelines. Finally, a comprehensive approach should encourage adjustments in food supply and changes in food systems to increase the availability and accessibility of healthier food that is both sustainable and nutrition sensitive. 99. With a view to respecting,...

Text of the recommendation

98. A holistic approach to nutrition requires national policymakers to create an environment conducive to nutritious, healthy diets, including through education, and dietary guidelines. Finally, a comprehensive approach should encourage adjustments in food supply and changes in food systems to increase the availability and accessibility of healthier food that is both sustainable and nutrition sensitive.

99. With a view to respecting, protecting and fulfilling the right to adequate food and nutrition, the Special Rapporteur recommends that: (...)

(a) Member States embrace the United Nations Decade of Action on Nutrition as an opportunity to achieve ambitious nutrition targets and ensuring the right of every individual to adequate food and nutrition, especially the people who most need it. To this end, United Nations agencies and programmes should establish coordinated, effective monitoring and accountability mechanisms to implement the multitude of existing nutrition targets in ways that are coherent, harmonized, mutually reinforcing and overcoming gaps, together with clear timelines, funding and indicators to assess progress;

(b) The Committee on World Food Security, as recommended by the General Assembly, ensure the participation of all partners during the Decade, in particular rights holders and representatives of vulnerable groups. Affirmative measures should be adopted to ensure a “level playing field” allowing civil society to play active roles in discussions and negotiations;

(c) International regulations be implemented to curb the unchecked actions of powerful economic actors that have lately been flooding global markets with junk food. In this regard, negotiations within the Human Rights Council to establish a legally binding instrument to regulate the activities of transnational corporations are greatly welcomed;

(d) The Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights be implemented to ensure corporate responsibility of the food and nutrition industry and enforce the rights of victims to redress human rights violations, including cross-border cases;

(e) Internationally agreed guidelines on how to manage public-private partnership and monitor accountability be established, based on independent assessments of the impact of commercial sector engagement in nutrition;

(f) International trade and investment agreements be re-evaluated to ensure that they do not undermine health and nutrition policies. For example, food taxes, tariffs and other market restrictions or incentives that justifiably form part of national nutrition policies should be exempt from World Trade Organization rules and should not lead to penalties for violating trade agreements;

(g) States be encouraged to use existing tools established by the United Nations, as well as by non-governmental organizations and academic networks, to create a “national master plan for nutrition” with a time frame and budgetary targets specifically tailored to meet domestic needs;

(h) States ensure the political and financial commitments needed to shift from current industrial agricultural systems to nutrition-sensitive agroecology that is healthy for people and sustainable for the planet;

(i) States adopt an initiative similar to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to regulate the food and beverage industry and protect individuals from the negative health and nutrition effects of highly processed foods;

(j) Recognizing the particular vulnerability of women to malnutrition, the international human rights framework protect women’s right to adequate food and nutrition, beyond pregnancy and breastfeeding;

(k) The empowerment of women be firmly embedded within nutrition strategies, for example by providing paid maternity leave, social recognition of unpaid work, prevention of early and forced marriages and protection of women’s sexual and reproductive rights;

(l) All States incorporate the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes in its entirety into their legal systems and ensure adequate monitoring to ensure implementation;

(m) The Human Rights Council endorse the WHO guidance on ending the inappropriate promotion of foods for infants and young children, presented at the World Health Assembly in May 2016.

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right to food, Interim Report on the right to food, A/71/282, (2016). Par. 98 and 99. Available at: https://undocs.org/A/71/282

2016 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, par. 97 (2016) - 1550

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-to-food-par-97-2016

Food policy Industry interference Food and nutrition security

97. Recognizing that industry self-regulation is ineffective, Governments should impose strong regulatory systems to ensure that the food industry does not violate citizens’ human rights to adequate food and nutrition. It is recognized, however, that such efforts may face formidable resistance from a food industry seeking to protect its economic interests....

Text of the recommendation

97. Recognizing that industry self-regulation is ineffective, Governments should impose strong regulatory systems to ensure that the food industry does not violate citizens’ human rights to adequate food and nutrition. It is recognized, however, that such efforts may face formidable resistance from a food industry seeking to protect its economic interests.

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right to food, Interim Report on the right to food, A/71/282, (2016). Par. 97, 98. Available at: https://undocs.org/A/71/282

2016 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, par. 92 (2016) - 1548

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-to-food-par-92-2016

Food policy Other Health-related issues Food production Food and nutrition security Environment and health

92. To promote meaningful change, actions must also be directed at the food system level to make it more “nutrition sensitive”. It is imperative that global food systems move away from agro-industrial production methods that are responsible for dietary monotony and reliance on ultraprocessed food and beverages towards a system that supports food sovereignty, small-scale producers and local markets, based...

Text of the recommendation

92. To promote meaningful change, actions must also be directed at the food system level to make it more “nutrition sensitive”. It is imperative that global food systems move away from agro-industrial production methods that are responsible for dietary monotony and reliance on ultraprocessed food and beverages towards a system that supports food sovereignty, small-scale producers and local markets, based on ecological balance, agro-biodiversity and traditional practices. Food sovereignty allows peoples to define their own policies and strategies for sustainable production, distribution and consumption of food. Globally, the majority of food is supplied by local farmers. Therefore, efforts to combat malnutrition should support smallholder farmers and promote nutrition-sensitive production. Agroecology ensures food and nutrition security without compromising the economic, social and environmental needs of future generations. (...)

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right to food, Interim Report on the right to food, A/71/282, (2016). Par. 92. Available at: https://undocs.org/A/71/282

2016 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, par. 79 (2016) - 1546

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-to-food-par-79-2016

Food policy Food marketing regulations

79. Advertisements influence people’s food preferences and habits. Recognizing that children are especially exposed to aggressive marketing and promotion strategies by food and beverage companies, some States prohibit media advertising to children for certain “restricted” food and drink products. In Chile, for example, where children form more than 20 per cent of the audience, mandatory regulations restrict advertising to children...

Text of the recommendation

79. Advertisements influence people’s food preferences and habits. Recognizing that children are especially exposed to aggressive marketing and promotion strategies by food and beverage companies, some States prohibit media advertising to children for certain “restricted” food and drink products. In Chile, for example, where children form more than 20 per cent of the audience, mandatory regulations restrict advertising to children under 14, while Taiwan Province of China bans the advertising of restricted foods on channels dedicated to children, levying fines for violations of its regulations. Brazil imposes strict regulations, prohibiting any “abusive publicity” and strategies that appeal directly to Children and/or adolescents. In practice, however, there seem to be many difficulties in implementing such restrictions.

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right to food, Interim Report on the right to food, A/71/282, (2016). Par. 79. Available at: https://undocs.org/A/71/282

2016 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, par. 76 and par. 78 (2016) - 1544

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-to-food-par-76-and-par-78-2016

Food policy Chile Packaging and labeling Food marketing regulations Industry interference

76. Nutrition labels allow people to make informed decisions on their food options and incentivizes food manufacturers to reformulate their products to target healthconscious consumers. Many countries have mandatory nutrient lists on pre-packaged foods, and some have gone further to implement creative schemes to alert consumers about foods that undermine their nutritional welfare. For example, (...) Chile has food labels...

Text of the recommendation

76. Nutrition labels allow people to make informed decisions on their food options and incentivizes food manufacturers to reformulate their products to target healthconscious consumers. Many countries have mandatory nutrient lists on pre-packaged foods, and some have gone further to implement creative schemes to alert consumers about foods that undermine their nutritional welfare. For example, (...) Chile has food labels with a “stop sign” warning message when calorie, saturated fat, sugar or sodium limits have been exceeded; and Ecuador requires packaged foods to carry a “traffic light” label indicating fats, sugar and salt by colour. (...)

78. Although WHO has recommended that the private sector adopt evidence-based “responsible marketing”, and despite some positive initiatives as described above, ensuring informative labelling is still an uphill battle for nutrition and health advocates.

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right to food, Interim Report on the right to food, A/71/282, (2016). Par. 76, 78. Available at: https://undocs.org/A/71/282

2016 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, par. 85 (2016) - 1497

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-to-food-par-85-2016

Food policy Other Health-related issues Mexico Fiscal measures Food production Education and information Food and nutrition security

85. Various countries have also taxed beverages that contain high levels of sugar or other sweeteners. While in some countries the revenue goes directly to the general budget or to the health sector, others use such funds for specific nutrition - and health-related projects. For example, Mexico uses revenue to finance programmes addressing malnutrition and obesity-related diseases, and the Navajo...

Text of the recommendation

85. Various countries have also taxed beverages that contain high levels of sugar or other sweeteners. While in some countries the revenue goes directly to the general budget or to the health sector, others use such funds for specific nutrition - and health-related projects. For example, Mexico uses revenue to finance programmes addressing malnutrition and obesity-related diseases, and the Navajo Nation earmarks tax revenues for such projects as farming, healthy convenience stores and health classes.

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right to food, Interim Report on the right to food, A/71/282, (2016). Par. 85. Available at: https://undocs.org/A/71/282

2016 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, par. 72 and 73 (2016) - 1495

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-to-food-par-72-and-73-2016

Food policy Industry interference Food and nutrition security

72. While international human rights law lays the foundations for responsible corporate behaviour, food corporations have vehemently opposed calls to regulate marketing. Instead, many have promoted voluntary commitments on labelling and advertising or have sponsored nutrition and health education programmes as part of their “corporate social responsibility”. The latter is particularly concerning, blurring the lines between education and marketing, and...

Text of the recommendation

72. While international human rights law lays the foundations for responsible corporate behaviour, food corporations have vehemently opposed calls to regulate marketing. Instead, many have promoted voluntary commitments on labelling and advertising or have sponsored nutrition and health education programmes as part of their “corporate social responsibility”. The latter is particularly concerning, blurring the lines between education and marketing, and potentially allowing companies to disseminate misleading information.

73. Recent initiatives, such as a 2014 high-level commission on ending childhood obesity and recommendations towards a global convention to protect and promote healthy diets by the World Obesity Federation and Consumers International, as well as Global Nutrition Reports, indicate the need for stronger accountability mechanisms at the national level, considering that voluntary corporate initiatives are proving ineffective.

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right to food, Interim Report on the right to food, A/71/282, (2016). Par. 72 and 73. Available at: https://undocs.org/A/71/282

2016 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, par. 54 (2016) - 1493

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-to-food-par-54-2016

Food policy Food marketing regulations Industry interference Breastfeeding

54. Conflicts of interest have also been identified where businesses involved in the initiative were simultaneously marketing foods leading to obesity and non-communicable diseases. While efforts were recently made, for example by excluding infant formula manufacturers that violate the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes, it remains unclear as to how the initiative prevents companies from gaining improper access...

Text of the recommendation

54. Conflicts of interest have also been identified where businesses involved in the initiative were simultaneously marketing foods leading to obesity and non-communicable diseases. While efforts were recently made, for example by excluding infant formula manufacturers that violate the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes, it remains unclear as to how the initiative prevents companies from gaining improper access to markets and policymaking, or how violations are detected and evaluated.

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right to food, Interim Report on the right to food, A/71/282, (2016). Par. 54. Available at: https://undocs.org/A/71/282

2016 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, par. 47 (2016) - 1491

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-to-food-par-47-2016

Food policy Other Health-related issues Food production Food and nutrition security Environment and health

47. Despite the potential success of the Goals, nutrition is mentioned in only 1 of the 169 targets, and overweight and obesity are not mentioned. More importantly, whether the Sustainable Development Goal targets have the innovation necessary to ensure a successful shift towards sustainable food systems and provide the framework for global governance of agriculture, food, nutrition and health seems...

Text of the recommendation

47. Despite the potential success of the Goals, nutrition is mentioned in only 1 of the 169 targets, and overweight and obesity are not mentioned. More importantly, whether the Sustainable Development Goal targets have the innovation necessary to ensure a successful shift towards sustainable food systems and provide the framework for global governance of agriculture, food, nutrition and health seems doubtful. In addition, some targets lack the focus necessary to enable effective implementation, or they contribute to several Goals, thereby creating possible conflicts. Action to meet one target could have unintended consequences on others if they are pursued separately. (...)

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right to food, Interim Report on the right to food, A/71/282, (2016). Par. 47. Available at: https://undocs.org/A/71/282

2016 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, par. 32, par. 33 and par. 34 (2016) - 1489

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-to-food-par-32-par-33-and-par-34-2016

Food policy Tobacco control Other Health-related issues China India Packaging and labeling Food marketing regulations Industry interference Education and information Trade and investment

32. The level and effect of investment by the food industry in the marketing of unhealthy food products is startling. Persistent advertising campaigns, discount offers, exclusive contracts with food outlets and pricing and packaging strategies are all used to drive demand. 33. “Junk food” companies tend to use tactics similar to those used by tobacco companies in the 1980s, when science...

Text of the recommendation

32. The level and effect of investment by the food industry in the marketing of unhealthy food products is startling. Persistent advertising campaigns, discount offers, exclusive contracts with food outlets and pricing and packaging strategies are all used to drive demand.

33. “Junk food” companies tend to use tactics similar to those used by tobacco companies in the 1980s, when science began linking smoking to serious health

problems. Some companies even fund scientific research, manipulating results in support of their products, or add minimal amounts of healthy ingredients to enable them to present their products as “healthy”.

34. Marketing strategies are particularly harmful when they target untapped markets in developing nations, a spillover from the “saturation” of markets in developed countries. The effect of introducing fast food on the diet quality of poorer populations is especially dangerous when there is a lack of knowledge or education and where individuals are vulnerable to manipulative marketing practices. If left uncontrolled, undernutrition in lower-income countries will be rapidly eclipsed by obesity and non-communicable diseases, as is already the case in China, India and many middle-income countries.

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right to food, Interim Report on the right to food, A/71/282, (2016). Par. 32, 33, 34. Available at: https://undocs.org/A/71/282

2016 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, par. 31 (2016) - 1487

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-to-food-par-31-2016

Food policy Food production Industry interference Food and nutrition security Trade and investment

foreign direct investment (FDI)** 31. FDI is playing a significant role in the “nutrition transition”. The food processing industry is now the largest recipient of FDI, particularly in support of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods. FDI allows companies to become transnational by purchasing or investing in “foreign affiliates” located in other countries, which then produce food for the domestic markets. This allows the...

Text of the recommendation

foreign direct investment (FDI)**

31. FDI is playing a significant role in the “nutrition transition”. The food processing industry is now the largest recipient of FDI, particularly in support of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods. FDI allows companies to become transnational by purchasing or investing in “foreign affiliates” located in other countries, which then produce food for the domestic markets. This allows the foreign-based company to bypass import tariffs and lowers transportation and production costs. By flooding markets with cheap refined grains, corn sweeteners and vegetable oil, FDI has become a driving force behind rising obesity rates in developing countries.

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right to food, Interim Report on the right to food, A/71/282, (2016). Par. 31. Available at: https://undocs.org/A/71/282

2016 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, par. 19 (2016) - 1485

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-to-food-par-19-2016

Food policy United States of America Food and nutrition security

19. Poverty and inequality are drivers of obesity and micronutrient deficiency, in addition to undernutrition. Low-income populations are particularly vulnerable to obesity. Processed foods tend to be highly accessible and relatively cheap and can be stored for long periods without spoiling. In the United States of America for instance, low-income neighbourhoods often lack food retailers that sell fruits, vegetables, whole...

Text of the recommendation

19. Poverty and inequality are drivers of obesity and micronutrient deficiency, in addition to undernutrition. Low-income populations are particularly vulnerable to obesity. Processed foods tend to be highly accessible and relatively cheap and can be stored for long periods without spoiling. In the United States of America for instance, low-income neighbourhoods often lack food retailers that sell fruits, vegetables, whole grains and alternative low-fat options. Unable to afford healthier food options, individuals may become overreliant on poor-quality foods, essentially being forced to choose between economic viability and nutrition and exposed to “double malnutrition”.

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right to food, Interim Report on the right to food, A/71/282, (2016). Par. 19. Available at: https://undocs.org/A/71/282

2016 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, par. 16 and par. 17 (2016) - 1483

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-to-food-par-16-and-par-17-2016

Food policy Food marketing regulations Industry interference Food and nutrition security Breastfeeding

16. Breastfeeding is a powerful influence on child survival and development and prevention of child malnutrition. It provides optimal nutrition for young infants, reducing the incidence and severity of infectious diseases and contributing to obesity prevention. Breastfed babies are protected from illnesses through the mother’s antibodies, while those who are not are exposed to increased chances of malnutrition, non-communicable diseases...

Text of the recommendation

16. Breastfeeding is a powerful influence on child survival and development and prevention of child malnutrition. It provides optimal nutrition for young infants, reducing the incidence and severity of infectious diseases and contributing to obesity prevention. Breastfed babies are protected from illnesses through the mother’s antibodies, while those who are not are exposed to increased chances of malnutrition, non-communicable diseases and suboptimal cognitive development. In addition, infant formula and other breast milk substitutes can cause poor growth or illness if water quality and hygiene standards are not met.

17. One of the major obstacles to breastfeeding is the misleading marketing by baby food companies of breast milk substitutes and the lack of corporate accountability for the adverse consequences of such abuses.

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right to food, Interim Report on the right to food, A/71/282, (2016). Par. 16, 17. Available at: https://undocs.org/A/71/282

2016 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, par. 14 (2016) - 1481

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-to-food-par-14-2016

Food policy Food marketing regulations Nutritional surveillance Food and nutrition security

14. At the same time, there were 41 million overweight children under the age of 5. If this trend continues, 70 million infants and young children will be overweight or obese by 2025. Economic and cultural factors contribute to childhood obesity. Energy-dense foods are often more affordable and aggressively marketed towards children, while some cultures may associate higher weights in...

Text of the recommendation

14. At the same time, there were 41 million overweight children under the age of 5. If this trend continues, 70 million infants and young children will be overweight or obese by 2025. Economic and cultural factors contribute to childhood obesity. Energy-dense foods are often more affordable and aggressively marketed towards children, while some cultures may associate higher weights in children with being healthy.

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right to food, Interim Report on the right to food, A/71/282, (2016). Par. 14. Available at: https://undocs.org/A/71/282

2016 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, par. 6, par. 8 and par. 9 (2016) - 1478

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-to-food-par-6-par-8-and-par-9-2016

Food policy Nutritional surveillance Physical activity Industry interference Food and nutrition security Breastfeeding

6. Malnutrition includes undernutrition, micronutrient deficiency and conditions associated with excess intake and nutritional imbalance. Undernutrition is a consequence of consuming too few essential nutrients, caused by either insufficient food intake or repeated infectious diseases. The most basic kind of undernutrition is protein energy malnutrition, which in its acute form leads to wasting. Identifying wasting in children is crucial because...

Text of the recommendation

6. Malnutrition includes undernutrition, micronutrient deficiency and conditions associated with excess intake and nutritional imbalance. Undernutrition is a consequence of consuming too few essential nutrients, caused by either insufficient food intake or repeated infectious diseases. The most basic kind of undernutrition is protein energy malnutrition, which in its acute form leads to wasting. Identifying wasting in children is crucial because the condition is reversible, if appropriately addressed. In its chronic form, it is caused by sustained poor dietary intake or repeated infections during the first 1,000 days of a child’s life and can lead to stunting. Stunting is irreversible and leads to shortness in stature, immediate and long-term morbidity and mortality and problems with cognitive functioning. (...)

8. “Unbalanced nutrition” occurs when the body is exposed to too much dietary energy and leads to overweight and obesity. It may result from eating too much or too many of the wrong things, as well as insufficient exercise, and can lead to an increased risk of heart disease, hypertension, diabetes and diet-related cancers.

9. Traditionally, undernutrition and “hidden hunger” were considered specific to the developing world, while obesity was commonly perceived to mostly affect developed countries. It is now recognized that different forms of malnutrition coexist within most countries. Obesity rates are increasing in developing nations that are exposed to globalization while undergoing economic transition and urban migration. This is part of the global “nutrition transition”, which is seeing a rise in consumption of energy-dense yet nutrient-poor foods, coupled with more sedentarY lifestyles. As a consequence, many countries are now confronted with not only undernutrition but also rising rates of obesity

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right to food, Interim Report on the right to food, A/71/282, (2016). Par. 6,8,9. Available at: https://undocs.org/A/71/282

2019 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, par. 46 (2019) - 1473

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-to-food-par-46-2019

Food policy Other Health-related issues Food marketing regulations Food production Food and nutrition security Access to water Environment and health

46. Article 6 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child also includes provisions to support healthy childhood development. Article 24 (2) (c) reiterates the link between the rights to food and water and the right to the highest attainable standard of health. States must protect children against disease and malnutrition through the provision of adequate, nutritious foods and...

Text of the recommendation

46. Article 6 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child also includes provisions to support healthy childhood development. Article 24 (2) (c) reiterates the link between the rights to food and water and the right to the highest attainable standard of health. States must protect children against disease and malnutrition through the provision of adequate, nutritious foods and clean drinking water, taking into consideration the dangers and risks of environmental pollution. Further, article 32 assigns the State the responsibility to provide protection for children from economic exploitation.

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right to food, Interim report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, A/73/164, (2019). Par. 46. Available at: https://undocs.org/A/73/164

2019 - Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, par. 71 (2019) - 1471

https://righttohealthpolicyhub.org/database/report-of-the-special-rapporteur-on-the-right-to-food-par-71-2019

Food policy Other Health-related issues Industry interference

71. States cannot place civil society on the same footing as State and market actors, or ignore the concentrated power and conflicts of interest embedded in the private sector. Promoting a more balanced, inclusive and participatory governance space must start with States asserting greater regulatory authority over industry to ensure that human rights, environmental protections and labour standards are respected...

Text of the recommendation

71. States cannot place civil society on the same footing as State and market actors, or ignore the concentrated power and conflicts of interest embedded in the private sector. Promoting a more balanced, inclusive and participatory governance space must start with States asserting greater regulatory authority over industry to ensure that human rights, environmental protections and labour standards are respected and protected according to the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights. It also requires guaranteeing access to justice, especially for those who are often left behind. The review of Goal 16 at the high-level political forum in July 2019 will reveal progress in promoting this access, and the remaining challenges.

Citation

Special Rapporteur on the right to food, Interim report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, A/74/164, (2019). Par. 71. Available at: https://undocs.org/A/74/164